Continued from Re: `Gehenna' is a symbol for complete destruction #1 with this part #5 (see #1, #2, #3, #4) of my multi-
part response to your comment under my post "Main reasons why Jehovah's Witnessism is false" and specifically to:
9. The Watchtower's doctrine of annihilation, denies the Bible's clear teaching of eternal punishment (Mt 25:46; 2Th 1:9; Rev 20:10) of the sins of those who reject God's offer of salvation through the death of His Son Jesus.
Again, your words are bold to distinguish them from my response.
"Gehenna" is a symbol for complete destruction,
Again, the original and primary meaning of the word "destruction" is "ruin", i.e. de-structure:
"destruction - noun 1 the action of destroying or the state of being destroyed. 2 a cause of someone's ruin. - ORIGIN Latin, from destruere `destroy'." (Compact Oxford English Dictionary).
as opposed to the original and primary meaning of the word "annihilation", which is "reduce to nothing":
"Annihilate ... - verb 1 destroy completely. 2 informal defeat completely. - DERIVATIVES annihilation noun annihilator noun. - ORIGIN Latin annihilare `reduce to nothing'." (Compact Oxford English Dictionary).
The primary Greek words rendered "destroy" or "destruction" in the New Testament, in the context of after death, are: apoleia, apollumi and olethros. According to the following New Testament Greek lexicons, the basic meaning of these words is destruction in the sense of ruin, not annihilation.
Apoleia The noun apoleia in the New Testament means, "destruction, waste, loss, perishing," and "ruin," with the special sense of "eternal destruction":
"apoleia ... destruction, waste, loss, perishing ... in special sense of ... the loss of eternal life, perdition ...." (Abbott-Smith, 1937, "A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament," p.56).
"apoleia. ... `destruction,' `ruin,' b. `perishing,' c. `loss:' .... Eternal destruction is signified ..." (Kittel & Friedrich, 1985, "Theological Dictionary of the New Testament," p.67).
"apoleia... destroying, utter destruction ... perishing, ruin, destruction ... the destruction which consists in the loss of eternal life, eternal misery, perdition ..." (Thayer, 1901, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, pp.70-71).
Specifically apoleia does not mean annihilation or extinction, but rather "final loss, not annihilation," "Endless perdition... not annihilation," "loss of well-being, not of being," and "must never be construed as meaning extinction":
"[Rom 9:22] Unto destruction (eis apoleian). Endless perdition... not annihilation." (Robertson, 1931, "Word Pictures in the New Testament," Vol. IV, p.385).
"[Jn 17:12] But the son of perdition (ei me ho huios tes apoleias). ... It means the son marked by final loss, not annihilation ..." (Robertson, Ibid: Vol. V, p.278).
"APOLEIA ... indicating loss of well-being, not of being ... of things, signifying their waste, or ruin ... of persons, signifying their spiritual and eternal perdition" (Vine, 1940, "An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words," Vol. I., p.303).
"apoleia ... to destroy fully. ... the state after death wherein exclusion from salvation is a realized fact ... Apoleia and the verb apollumi ... must never be construed as meaning extinction. ... Neither the body becomes extinct, nor the spirit." (Zodhiates, 1992, "The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament," p.246).
Apollumi A verb of apoleia is apollumi, which in the New Testament means, "destroy," "perish," "ruined," "loss of eternal life," "consigned to eternal misery":
apollumi ... to destroy utterly ... to perish ... loss of eternal life ... completion of the process of destruction ... of spiritual destitution and alienation from God ..." (Abbott-Smith, Ibid, p.52).
"'ap-ollumi ... to destroy ... to perish. ... ruin ... to ... give over to eternal misery .... to be lost, ruined, destroyed ... to incur the loss of ... eternal life; to be delivered up to eternal misery ... to be consigned to eternal misery ..." (Thayer, Ibid, pp.64-65).
And again, by apollumi in this context, "Destroy ...is not annihilation, but eternal punishment," "The idea is not extinction but ruin, loss, not of being, but of well-being":
"[Mt 10:28] Destroy both soul and body in hell (kai psuchen kai soma apolesai en geennei). Note `soul' here of the eternal spirit, not just life in the body. `Destroy' here is not annihilation, but eternal punishment in Gehenna (the real hell) for which see on 5:22." (Robertson, Ibid: Vol. I, pp.82-83).
"APOLLUMI ... The idea is not extinction but ruin, loss, not of being, but of well-being. ... of the loss of well-being in the case of the unsaved hereafter" (Vine, Ibid, Vol. I., p.302).
"apollumi .... To destroy ... perish. ... eternal death, i.e., future punishment ... In all these instances the verb must not be thought of as indicating extinction ..." (Zodhiates, Ibid, pp.230-231).
Olethros The verb olethros is derived from apollumi and therefore also means, "to destroy ... ruin, destruction, death," "eternal destruction," "after death ... misery," "final, eternal and irrevocable ... ruin":
"olethros ... to destroy ... ruin, destruction, death: 1 Th 5:3; 1 Ti 6:9; aionios, II Th 1:9 ..." (Abbott-Smith, Ibid, p.315).
"olethros. ...`corruption,' ... `death,' .... In 2 Th. 1:9 eternal destruction will come on those who reject the gospel ... In 1 Tim. 6:9 .... temptations that will plunge them into complete ruin..." (Kittel & Friedrich, Ibid, p.681).
"olethros ... to destroy .... down, ruin, destruction, death: 1 Th. v. 3; 1 Tim. vi. 9 ... destruction of the flesh ... 1 Co. v. 5 ... after death ... misery ... 2 Th. i. 9 ..." (Thayer, Ibid, p.443).
"OLETHROS ... ruin, destruction ... 1 Cor. 5:5 ... 1 Thess. 5:3 and 2 Thess. 1:9, of the effect of the Divine judgments upon men ... 1 Tim. 6:9 ... the final, eternal and irrevocable character of the ruin." (Vine, Ibid, Vol. I., p.304).
But again, "Destruction ... does not mean here annihilation, but ... an eternity of woe," "Not annihilation, but eternal punishment," "The fundamental thought is not annihilation ... but unavoidable distress and torment":
[2Th 1:9] "Destruction ... does not mean here annihilation, but ... separation from the face of the Lord ... an eternity of woe ... See on Matt. 25:46 " (Robertson, Ibid: Vol. IV, p.44).
[1Tim 6:9] "in destruction and perdition' (eis olethron kai apoleian)" is "Not annihilation, but eternal punishment." (Robertson, Ibid, p.593).
"olethros ... to destroy, kill. Ruin, destruction. ... divine punishment (1 Cor. 5:5; 1 Thess. 5:3; 2 Thess. 1:9; 1 Tim. 6:9 .... The fundamental thought is not annihilation ... but unavoidable distress and torment." (Zodhiates, Ibid, p.1036).
So while Gehenna is indeed "a symbol for complete destruction" by "destruction" is not meant annihilation, but rather Gehenna is "a designation for the place of eternal punishment"; it "represents ... the place ... where the wicked would be punished for eternity"; it "denote[s] the place of eternal torment"; and it "became the representative or image of the place of everlasting punishment ... the eternal state of the wicked as forever separated from God .... Thus is represented the punishment of the wicked":
"Hell. ... The place of woe. In this sense it is the rendering of Gr. Geenna. ... the valley of Hinnom became a type of sin and woe ... a designation for the place of eternal punishment ..." (Gehman & Davis, 1944, "The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible," pp.235-236).
"Gehenna. ... represents ... the place ... where the wicked would be punished for eternity" (Myers, 1987, "The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary," pp.478-479).
"... Jews applied the name of this valley-Ge Hinnom, Gehenna ... to denote the place of eternal torment. In this sense the word is used by our Lord." (Peloubet, 1990, "Smith's Bible Dictionary," pp.249-250).
"Gehen'na ... became the representative or image of the place of everlasting punishment ... the eternal state of the wicked as forever separated from God .... Thus is represented the punishment of the wicked." (Unger, 1966, "Unger's Bible Dictionary," pp.394-395).
To be continued in "There is no literal place of fiery torture for lost souls."
"apollumi ... [in LXX for 'obdan, etc. (38 words in all)]. 1. Act., (1) to destroy utterly, destroy, kill: Mk 12:4; 9:22; al.; t. psuche, Mt 10:28; al.; (2) to lose utterly: Mt 10:42; al.; metaph., of failing to save, Jo 6:39; 18:9; (3) in pf. intrans., to perish: Mt 10:6. 2. Mid., (1) to perish; (a) of things: Mt 5:29; Jo 6:12; He 1:11 (LXX); al.; (b) of persons: Mt 8:25; al. Metaph., of loss of eternal life, Jo 3:15,16 10:28; 17:12; Ro 2:12; 1 Co 8:11; 15:18; II Pe 3:9. In oi apollumenoi, the perishing, contrasted in 1 Co 1:18; al., with oi sozomenoi, the ` perfective ` force of the verb, wh. `implies the completion of the process of destruction,' is illustrated (v. M, Pr., 114 f.; M, Th., ii, 2:10); (2) to be lost: Lk 15:4; 21:18. Metaph., on the basis of the relation between shepherd and flock, of spiritual destitution and alienation from God: Mt 10:6; 15:24; Lk 19:10 (MM, s.v.; DCG, i, 191 f., ii, 76, 554; Cremer, 451)." (Abbott-Smith, G., 1937, "A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament," , T. & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Third edition, Reprinted, 1956, p.52. My transliteration).
"apoleia, -as, e (< apollumi), [in LXX (Cremer, 797) for etc.; destruction, waste, loss, perishing (in p., of money, v. MM, s.v.) : Mt 26:8; Mk 14:4, Ac 8:20; Ro 9:11; 1 Ti 6:9; II Pe 2:1; in special sense of ... the loss of eternal life, perdition, the antithesis of (soteria: Mt 7:13; Jn 17:12; Phl 1:28; 3:19; II Th 23; He 10:39; II Pe 2:3; 3:7,16; Re 17:8,11 (DB, iii, 744)." (Abbott-Smith, 1937, p.56. My transliteration).
"olethros, -ou, o (< ollumi, to destroy), [in LXX for sheber, etc.;] ruin, destruction, death: 1 Th 5:3; 1 Ti 6:9; aionios, II Th 1:9 (L, txt., olethrios, q.v.) ; eis o. tes sarkos, for physical discipline, to destroy carnal lusts, 1 Co 5:5." (Abbott-Smith, 1937, p.315. My transliteration).
"Hell. ... 2. The place of woe. In this sense it is the rendering of Gr. Geenna. in Matt. 5:22, 29, 30; 10:28; 18:9; 22:15, 33; Mark 9:47; Luke 12:5, and James 3:6. This word is the Gr. form of Heb. Ge Hinnom, valley of Hinnom, where children were burnt to Molech. From the horrible sins practiced in it, its pollution by .Josiah, and perhaps also because offal was burnt in it, the valley of Hinnom became a type of sin and woe, and the name passed into use as a designation for the place of eternal punishment (Matt. 18:8, 9; Mark 9:43). From the scenes witnessed in the valley, imagery was borrowed to describe the Gehenna of the lost (Matt. 5:22; cf. ch. 13: 42; Mark 9:48). In II Peter 2:4, `to cast down to hell' is the rendering of the verb tartaroo, meaning `to cast down to Tartarus.' The Tartarus of the Romans, the Tartaros of the Greeks, was their place of woe, situated as far below Hades as Hades was below heaven. Gehenna and Tartarus are both the place of punishment for the lost." (Gehman, H.S. & Davis, J.D., 1944, "The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible," , Collins: London, 1924, Revised, pp.235-236).
"apoleia. Rare in secular Greek, this means a. `destruction,' `ruin,' b. `perishing,' c. `loss:' It is common in the LXX in sense b. (cf. Job 26:6). In the NT the curse of Acts 8:20 has an OT ring. Eternal destruction is signified in Mt. 7:13; Rom. 9:22; Phil. 1:28; 2 Th. 2:3; Jn. 17:12; 2 Pet. 2:1; Rev. 17:8, 11." (Kittel, G. & Friedrich, G., eds., 1985, "Theological Dictionary of the New Testament: Abridged in one Volume," Bromiley, G.W., transl., Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted, 1988, p.67).
"olethros. This word means a. `corruption,' especially `death,' and b. `that which brings corruption.' It is common in the LXX; the prophets use it often for eschatological `destruction' (Jer. 48:3). The sense is eschatological in two NT instances. In 2 Th. 1:9 eternal destruction will come on those who reject the gospel when Christ is revealed from heaven. In 1 Tim. 6:9 the conscience of those who seek wealth is seared, and they are thus in danger of falling into temptations that will plunge them into complete ruin. The point is rather different in 1 Cor. 5:5, where Paul seems to be saying that physical destruction (i.e., death) will follow when the congregation, with whom Paul will be present in spirit and with the power of the Lord, delivers the incestuous person to Satan (cf. Acts 5:5, 10; also Ignatius Ephesians 13.1 for the divine power at work when the church gathers)." (Kittel & Friedrich, 1985, p.681).
"Gehenna. The word Gehenna represents the nearest biblical approach to the developed doctrine of hell as the place of the damned. Thus the RSV employs the English word `hell' almost exclusively for Gehenna (Gk. geenna). The name comes from the Hebrew expressions ge hinnom, ... `valley of Hinnom,' ...where children were offered to the god Molech during the reigns of such wicked kings of Judah ... In later Jewish thought the name of this place of infamy and horror became associated with the growing belief in the existence of a place where the wicked would be punished for eternity (cf. Isa. 66:24). ... The New Testament use of Gehenna continues the development of the concept of a place of eternal punishment. ... the Gospels characterize Gehenna as a place of `unquenchable fire' (Matt. 5:22; 18:9; Mark 9:43; Jas. 3:6 ...)." (Myers, A.C., ed., 1987, "The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted, 2000, pp.478-479).
"Hin'nom (lamentation), Valley of ... a deep and narrow ravine, with steep, rocky sides, to the south and west of Jerusalem ... the later idolatrous kings. Ahaz and Manasseh made their children `pass through the fire' in this valley, 2 Kings 16:3; 2 Chron. 28:3; 33:6 .... From its ceremonial defilement, and from the detested and abominable fire of Molech, if not from the supposed ever-burning funeral piles, this later Jews applied the name of this valley-Ge Hinnom, Gehenna (land of Hinnom)-to denote the place of eternal torment. In this sense the word is used by our Lord. Matt. 5:29; 10:28; 23:15; Mark 9:43; Luke 12:5." (Peloubet, F.N. & M.A., eds, 1987, "Smith's Bible Dictionary," , Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, Revised, 1990, pp.249-250. Emphasis original).
"[Mt 10:28] Destroy both soul and body in hell (kai psuchen kai soma apolesai en geennei). Note `soul' here of the eternal spirit, not just life in the body. `Destroy' here is not annihilation, but eternal punishment in Gehenna (the real hell) for which see on 5:22." ( Robertson, A.T., 1930, "Word Pictures in the New Testament: Volume I: The Gospel According to Matthew & The Gospel According to Mark," Broadman Press: Nashville TN, pp.82-83).
"[2Th 1:9] Who (hoitines). Qualitative use, such as. Vanishing in papyri though surviving in Paul (I Cor. 3:17; Rom. 1:25; Gal. 4:26; Phil. 4:3). Shall suffer punishment (diken tisousin). Future active of old verb tino, to pay penalty (diken, right, justice), here only in N.T., but apotino once also to repay Philemon 19. In the papyri dike is used for a case or process in law. This is the regular phrase in classic writers for paying the penalty. Eternal destruction (olethron aionion). Accusative case in apposition with diken (penalty). This phrase does not appear elsewhere in the N.T., but is in IV Macc. 10:15 ton aionion tou turannou olethron the eternal destruction of the tyrant (Antiochus Epiphanes). Destruction (cf. I Thess. 5:3) does not mean here annihilation, but, as Paul proceeds to show, separation from the face of the Lord (apo prosopou tou kuriou) and from the glory of his might (kai apo tes doxes tes ischuos autou), an eternity of woe such as befell Antiochus Epiphanes. Aionios in itself only means age-long and papyri and inscriptions give it in the weakened sense of a Caesar's life (Milligan), but Paul means by age-long the coming age in contrast with this age, as eternal as the New Testament knows how to make it. See on Matt. 25:46 for use of aionios both with zoen, life, and kolasin, punishment." (Robertson, A.T., 1931, "Word Pictures in the New Testament: Volume IV: The Epistles of Paul," Broadman Press: Nashville TN, p.44).
"[1Tim 6:9] Desire to be rich (boulomenoi ploutein). The will (boulomai) to be rich at any cost and in haste (Prov. 28:20). Some MSS. have `trust in riches' in Mark 10:24.. Possibly Paul still has teachers and preachers in mind. Fall into (empiptousin eis). See on 3:6 for en-eis and 3:7 for pagida (snare). Foolish (anoetous). See Gal. 3:1, 3. Hurtful (blaberas). Old adjective from blapto, to injure, here alone in N.T. Drown (buthizousin). Late word (literary Koine) from buthos (bottom), to drag to the bottom. In N.T. only here and Luke 5:7 (of the boat). Drown in the lusts with the issue `in destruction and perdition' (eis olethron kai apoleian). Not annihilation, but eternal punishment. The combination only here, but for olethros, see I Thess. 5:3; II Thess. 1:9; I Cor. 5:5 and for apoleia, see II Thess. 2:3; Phil. 3:19." (Robertson, 1931, Vol. IV, p.593).
"[Jn 17:12] But the son of perdition (ei me ho huios tes apoleias). The very phrase for antichrist (II Thess. 2:3). Note play on apoleto, perished (second aorist middle indicative of apollumi). It means the son marked by final loss, not annihilation, but meeting one's destiny (Acts 1:25)." (Robertson, A.T., 1932, "Word Pictures in the New Testament: Volume V: The Fourth Gospel & the Epistle to the Hebrews," Broadman Press: Nashville TN, p.278).
"'ap-ollumi and 'apolluo (['apolluei Jn. xii. 25 T TrWH], impv. apollue Ro. xiv. 15, [cf. B. 45 (39); WH App. p. 168 sq.]); fut. apoleso and (1 Co. i. 19 apolu fr. a pass. in the O. T., where often) apolo (cf. W. 83 (80); [B. 64 (56)]); 1 aor. apolesa; to destroy; Mid., pres. apollumai; [impf. 3 pers. plur. apollunto 1 Co. x. 9 T Tr WH]; fut. apoloumai; 2 aor. apolomen; (2 pf. act. ptcp. apololos); [fr. Hom. down]; to perish. 1. to destroy i. e. to put out of the way entirely, abolish, put an end to, ruin: Mk. i. 24; Lk. iv. 34; xvii. 27, 29; Jude 5; ten sophian render useless, cause its emptiness to be perceived, 1 Co. i. 19 (fr. Sept. of Is. xxix. 14); to kill: Mt. ii. 13; xii. 14; Mk. ix. 22; xi. 18; Jn. x. 10, etc.; contextually, to declare that one must be put to death: Mt. xxvii. 20; metaph. to devote or give over to eternal misery: Mt. x. 28; Jas. iv. 12; contextually, by one's conduct to cause another to lose eternal salvation: Ro. xiv. 15. Mid. to perish, to be lost, ruined, destroyed; a. of persons; a. properly: Mt. viii. 25; Lk. xiii. 3, 5, 33; Jn. xi. 50; 2 Pet. iii. 6; Jude 11, etc.; apollumai limo, Lk. xv. 17; en machaira Mt. xxvi. 52; kataballomenoi all suk apollumenoi, 2 Co. iv. 9. b. tropically, to incur the loss of true or eternal life; to be delivered up to eternal misery: Jn. iii. 15 [R L br.], 16; x. 28; xvii. 12, (it must be borne in mind, that acc. to John's conception eternal life begins on earth, just as soon as one becomes united to Christ by faith); Ro. ii. 12; 1 Co. viii. 11; xv. 18; 2 Pet. iii. 9. Hence oi sozomenoi they to whom it belongs to partake of salvation, and oi apollumenoi those to whom it belongs to perish or to be consigned to eternal misery, are contrasted by Paul: 1 Co. i. 18; 2 Co. ii. 15; iv. 3; 2 Th. ii. 10 ..." (Thayer, J.H., 1901, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament," T & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Fourth edition, Reprinted, 1961, pp.64-65. My transliteration).
"apoleia, -as, e, (fr. apollumi q. v.); -1. actively, a destroying, utter destruction as, of vessels, Ro. ix. 22; tou murou, waste, Mk;. xiv. 4 (in Mt. xxvi. 8 without a gen.), (in Polyb. 6. 59, 5 consumption, opp. to teresis); the putting, of a man to death, Acts xxv. 16 Rec.; by meton. a destructive thing, or opinion: in plur. 2 Pet. ii. 2 Rec.: but the correct reading aselgeiais was long ago adopted here. 2. passively, a perishing, ruin, destruction; a. in general: to argurion sou sun soi eie eis ap. let thy money perish with thee, Acts viii. 20; buthizein tina eis olethron k. apoleian, with the included idea of misery, 1 Tim. vi. 9; airesias apolesias destructive opinions, 2 Pet. ii. 1; epagein eautois apolesian, ibid. cf. vs. 3. b. in particular, the destruction which consists in the loss of eternal life, eternal misery, perdition, the lot of those excluded from the kingdom of God: Rev. xvii. 8, 11, cf. xix. 20; Phil. iii. 19; 2 Pet. iii. 16; opp. to e peripoinsis tes psuches, Heb. x. 39; to e zoe, Mt. vii. 13 to soteria, Phil. i. 28. o uios tes apoleias a man doomed to eternal misery (a Hebraism, see uios, 2): 2 Th. ii. 3 (of Antichrist); Jn. xvii. 12 (of Judas, the traitor); emera kriseos k. apoleias ton asebon, 2 Pet. iii. i. (In prof. auth. fr. Polyb. u. s. [but see Aristot. probl. 17, 3, 2, vol. ii. p. 916a, 26; 29, 14, 10 ibid. 952b, 26; Nicom. eth. 4, 1 ibid. 1120a, 2, etc.]; often in the Sept. and O. T. Apocr.)" (Thayer, 1901, pp.70-71. My transliteration).
"olethros, -on, (ollumi to destroy [perh. (olnumi) allied to Lat. vulnus]), fr. Hom. down, ruin, destruction, death: 1 Th. v. 3 ; 1 Tim. vi. 9 ; eis olethron tes sarkos, for the destruction of the flesh, said of the external ills and troubles by which the lusts of the flesh are subdued and destroyed, 1 Co. v. 5 [see paradidomai, 2] ; i. q. the loss of a life of blessedness after death, future misery, aionios (as 4 Macc. x. 15) : 2 Th. i. 9 [where L txt. olethrion, q. v.], cf. Sap. i. 12." (Thayer, 1901, p.443. My transliteration).
"Gehen'na (ge-hen'a; Gr. Geenna, for the Heb. hinnom, the Valley of Hinnom), a deep, narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem, where the Jews offered their children to Moloch (II Kings 23:10; Jer. 7:31; 19:2-6). In later times it served as a receptacle of all sorts of putrefying matter, and all that defiled the holy city, and so became the representative or image of the place of everlasting punishment, especially on account of its ever-burning fires; and to this fact the words of Christ refer when he says `the fire is not quenched.' `The passages of the New Testament show plainly that the word `gehenna' was a popular expression for `hell' of which Jesus and his apostles made use, but it would be erroneous to infer that Jesus and his apostles merely accommodated themselves to the popular expression, without believing in the actual state of the lost.' In the N. T. the word gehenna falls many times from the lips of Christ in most awesome warning of the consequences of sin (Matt. 5:22, 29, 30; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15, 33; Mark 9:43, 45, 47; Luke 12:5). He describes it as a place where `their' worm never dies and their `fire' is never to be quenched. Gehenna is identical in meaning with the `lake of fire' (Rev. 19:20; 20:10, 14, 15). Moreover the `second death' and `the lake of fire' are identical terms (Rev. 20:14). These latter Scriptural expressions describe the eternal state of the wicked as forever separated from God and consigned to the special abode of unrepentant angels and men in the eternal state. The term `second' is employed relating to the preceding physical death of the wicked in unbelief and rejection of God (John 8:21-24). ... The words `forever and ever' ('to the ages of the ages') describing the destiny of the lost in Heb. 1:8, also apply to the duration of the throne of God as eternal in the sense of being unending. Thus is represented the punishment of the wicked. Gehenna, moreover, is not to be confused with Hades or Sheol (q.v.), which describe the intermediate state of the wicked previous to the judgment and the eternal state." (Unger, M.F., 1966, "Unger's Bible Dictionary," , Moody Press: Chicago IL, Third edition, Fifteenth printing, 1969, pp.394-395).
"APOLLUMI (apollumi), a strengthened form of ollumi, signifies to destroy utterly; in Middle Voice, to perish. The idea is not extinction but ruin, loss, not of being, but of well-being. This is clear from its use, as, e.g., of the marring of wine skins, Luke 5:37; of lost sheep, i.e., lost to the shepherd, metaphorical of spiritual destitution, Luke 15:4, 6, etc.; the lost son, 15:24; of the perishing of food, John 6:27; of gold, 1 Pet. 1:7. So of persons, Matt. 2:13, `destroy;' 8:25, `perish;' 22:7; 27:20; of the loss of well-being in the case of the unsaved hereafter, Matt. 10:28; Luke 13:3, 5; John 3:16 (ver. 15 in some mss.); 10:28; 17:12; Rom. 2:12; 1 Cor. 15:18; 2 Cor 2:15, `are perishing;' 4:3; 2 Thess. 2:10; Jas. 4:12; 2 Pet. 3:9." (Vine, W.E., 1940, "An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words: With Their Precise Meanings for English Readers," Oliphants: London, 1940, Nineteenth impression, 1969, Vol. I., p.302).
"APOLEIA (apoleia), akin to A, No. 1, and likewise indicating loss of well-being, not of being, is used (a) of things, signifying their waste, or ruin; of ointment, Matt. 26:8; Mark 14:4; of money, Acts 8:20 (' perish'); (b) of persons, signifying their spiritual and eternal perdition, Matt. 7:13; John 17:12; 2 Thess. 2:3, where `son of perdition' signifies the proper destiny of the person mentioned; metaphorically of men persistent in evil, Rom. 9:22, where `fitted' is in the Middle Voice, indicating that the vessels of wrath fitted themselves for destruction; of the adversaries of the Lord's people, Phil. 1:28 ('perdition'); of professing Christians, really enemies of the Cross of Christ, Phil. 3:19 (R.V., `perdition'); of those who are subjects of foolish and hurtful lusts, 1 Tim. 6:9 (for the preceding word `destruction' see No. 3, below); of professing Hebrew adherents who shrink back into unbelief, Heb. 10:39; of false teachers, 2 Pet. 2:1, 3; of ungodly men, 3:7; of those who wrest the Scriptures, 3:16; of the Beast, the final head of the revived Roman Empire; Rev. 17:8, 11; (c) of impersonal subjects, as heresies, 2 Pet. 2:1, where `destructive heresies' (R.V.; A.V., `damnable') is, lit., ` heresies of destruction ' (marg., `sects of perdition'); in ver. a the most authentic mss. have aselgeiais, `lascivious,' instead of apoleiais." (Vine, 1940, Vol. I., pp.303-304).
"OLETHROS (olethros), ruin, destruction, akin to A, No. 6, always translated `destruction,' is used in 2 Cor. 5:5, of the effect upon the physical condition of an erring believer for the purpose of his spiritual profit; in 1 Thess. 5:3 and 2 Thess. 1:9, of the effect of the Divine judgments upon men at the ushering in of the Day of the Lord and the revelation of the Lord Jesus; in 1 Tim. 6:9, of the consequences of the indulgence of the flesh, referring to physical ruin and possibly that of the whole being, the following word apoleia (see No. 1) stressing the final, eternal and irrevocable character of the ruin." (Vine, 1940, Vol. I., p.304).
"apollumi or apoluo; fut. apoleso, 2d aor. apolomen, perf. apololeka, 2d perf. apolola, mid. fut. apoloumai, from apo (575) an intens., the mid. ollumi (n.f.), to destroy. The force of apo here is away or wholly; therefore, the verb is stronger than the simple ollumi. To destroy, mid. be destroyed, perish. Also from ollumi (n.f.): olethros (3639), rain, destruction. (I) Act. form: (A) To destroy, cause to perish, trans.: (1) Spoken of things figuratively (1 Cor. 1:19, meaning to bring to naught, render void the wisdom of the wise, quoted from Is. 29:14). (2) Of persons, to destroy, put to death, cause to perish. (a) Spoken of physical death (Matt. 2:13; 12:14; 21:41; 22:7; Mark 3:6; 9:22; 11:18; 12:9; Luke 6:9 [TR]; 17:27, 29; 19:47; 20:16; John 10:10; Jude 1:5; Sept.: Gen. 20:4; Dent. 11:4; Esth. 4:9; 9:16); in a judicial sense to sentence to death (Matt. 27:20; James 4:12). (b) Spoken of eternal death, i.e., future punishment, exclusion from the Messiah's kingdom. In this sense it has the same meaning as apothnesko (599), to die (Matt. 10:28; Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; 9:56). This eternal death is called the second death (Rev. 20:14). In Luke 9:25, to `destroy himself' (a.t.) means to subject himself to eternal death, which is the opposite of eternal life (John 6:50, 51, 58). Physical and eternal death are to be distinguished (John 8:21, 24; 11:25, 26; Rom. 7:10; 8:13). (B) To lose, be deprived of, trans. of such things as reward (Mark 9:41); a sheep (Luke 15:4); a drachma or coin (Luke 15:8, 9). See John 6:39; 2 John 1:8; Sept.: Prov. 29:3. To lose one's life or soul (Matt. 10:39; 16:25; Mark 8:35; Luke 9:24; 17:33; John 12:25). (II) Mid. and pass. forms as also 2d perf. apolola. (A) To be destroyed, perish, intrans. Spoken of: (1) Things (Matt. 5:29, 30; 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37; John 6:27; James 1:11; 1 Pet. 1:7). In all these instances the verb must not be thought of as indicating extinction, but only change from one state of being to another. Nothing actually becomes extinct, but everything changes. In Heb. 1:11, `even these heavens will perish ' (a.t.) quoted from Ps. 102:27; Jet. 9:11; 48:8; Ezek. 29:8; 35:7, means that these present heavens will be qualitatively changed as well as the earth (Rev. 21:1). The new, redeemed creation and physically redeemed creatures, especially the presently redeemed men with their redeemed bodies, will have a congruous environment in which to live (Rom. 8:19-23). (2) Persons, to be put to death, to die, perish, relating to physical death (Matt. 8:25; 26:52; Mark 4:38; Luke 8:24; 11:51; 13:33; 15:17; John 18:14; Acts 5:37; 1 Cor. 10:9, 10; 2 Cor. 4:9; 2 Pet. 3:6; Jude 1:11; Sept.: Lev. 23:30; Esth. 9:12). Relating to eternal death (see I, A, 2, b), to perish eternally, i.e., to be deprived of eternal life (Luke 13:3, 5; John 3:15, 16; 10:28; 17:12; Rom. 2:12; 1 Cor. 15:18; 2 Pet. 3:9). Those who perish (hoi apollumenoi, who are perishing) means those who are exposed to eternal death (1 Cor. 1:18; 2 Cor. 2:15; 4:3; 2 Thess. 2:10). (B) To be lost to the owner, such as hair (Luke 21:18), anything (John 6:12). Spoken of those who wander away and are lost, e.g., the prodigal son (Luke 15:24); sheep straying in the desert (Luke 15:4, 6). Metaphorically (Matt. 10:6; 15:24; Sept.: Ps. 119:176; Jer. 50:6; Ezek. 34:4)." (Zodhiates, S., 1992, "The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament," AMG Publishers: Chattanooga TN, Third printing, 1994, pp.230-231).
"apoleia; gen. apoleias, fem. noun from apollumi (622), to destroy fully. Used trans. the losing or loss (Matt. 26:8), intrans. perdition, ruin. In the NT, apoleia refers to the state after death wherein exclusion from salvation is a realized fact, wherein man, instead of becoming what he might have been, is lost and ruined. Destruction, either temporal (Acts 25:16, death; Sept.: Deut. 4:26; Esth. 7:4; Prov. 6:15; Is. 34:5), or the second death which is eternal exclusion from Christ's kingdom, equivalent to apothnesko (599), to die (Matt. 7:13; Acts 8:20; Rom. 9:22; Phil. 1:28; 3:19; 1 Tim. 6:9; Heb. 10:39; 2 Pet. 2:1, 3; 3:7, 16; Rev. 17:8, 11). `Heresies of destruction' (a.t.) in 2 Pet. 2:1 means fatally destructive heresies. In John 17:12; 2 Thess. 2:3, `the son of perdition,' an allusion to the Antichrist, means one determined to remain spiritually lost. See huios (5207), son. Destruction or waste (Mark 14:4; Sept.: Lev. 6:3, 4). Apoleia and the verb apollumi (622), to destroy, lose, perish, must never be construed as meaning extinction. One dies physically when his spirit and his body separate. Neither the body becomes extinct, nor the spirit. The body decomposes and ceases to exist in the form it was. Its constituent parts, however, continue to exist in a noncohesive form. The spirit takes a new existence, separate from its previous existence joined with the body." (Zodhiates, 1994, p.246).
"olethros; gen. olethrou, masc. noun, from ollumi (n.f.), to destroy, kill. Ruin, destruction. Used of divine punishment (1 Cor. 5:5; 1 Thess. 5:3; 2 Thess. 1:9; 1 Tim. 6:9; Sept.: Prov. 21:7). The verb ollumi (n.f.) does not occur, but its derivative, apollumi (622), to destroy, does. The fundamental thought is not annihilation by any means, but unavoidable distress and torment." (Zodhiates, 1994, p.1036).