Wednesday, January 2, 2008

Jesus is Jehovah! (JiJ): Contents

This is the Contents page of my book outline, "Jesus is Jehovah!: In the New World Translation." As with my other two online

[Above (click to enlarge): "Jesus is Yahweh" wheel, on back of Cetnar, W.I. & J., "Questions for Jehovah's Witnesses," [1983], Bill & Joan Cetnar: Kunkletown PA, Reprinted, 2001]

book outlines, "Problems of Evolution" and "The Shroud of Turin: Burial Sheet of Jesus?" which I am progressively posting to my CreationEvolutionDesign and TheShroudofTurin blogs respectively, I will post sections and subsections one to a page, the heading hyperlinked to each chapter, which in turn will be hyperlinked back to this main Contents page. These headings may change. If I update a page, I will not normally repost it or mention it. This is a work in progress.

© Stephen E. Jones




PS: The following `tagline' quotes (my emphases bold) are copied from my CED blog post, Jesus is Jehovah! The Bible verse hyperlinks are not to the NWT because at that stage my strategy was to assemble from mainstream translations those verses which showed that Jesus is Jehovah.

Stephen E. Jones.

My other blogs: CreationEvolutionDesign & TheShroudofTurin

"Jesus Is Yahweh ... A comparison of the Old and New Testaments provides powerful testimony to Jesus' identity as Yahweh. Support for this is found, for example, in Christ's crucifixion. In Zechariah 12:10 Yahweh is speaking prophetically: `They will look on me, the one they have pierced.' Though Yahweh is speaking, this is obviously a reference to Christ's future crucifixion. We know that `the one they have pierced' is Jesus, for He is described this same way by the apostle John in Revelation 1:7. ... The Septuagint provides us with additional insights on Christ's identity as Yahweh. The Septuagint is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament that dates prior to the birth of Christ. It renders the Hebrew phrase for `I AM' (God's name) in Exodus 3:14 as ego eimi. On a number of occasions in the Greek New Testament, Jesus used this term as a way of identifying Himself as God. For example, in John 8:24 (NASB) Jesus declared, `Unless you believe that I am [I AM or ego eimi] He, you shall die in your sins.' The original Greek text for this verse does not have the word he. The verse is literally, `If you do not believe that I AM, you shall die in your sins.' Then, according to verse 28, Jesus told the Jews, `When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am [I AM, or ego eimi] He.' Again, the original Greek text reads, `When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I AM' (there is no he). Jesus purposely used the phrase as a means of pointing to His identity as Yahweh. It is also highly revealing that Old Testament passages about Yahweh were directly applied to Jesus in the New Testament. For instance, Isaiah 40:3 says: `In the desert prepare the way for the LORD [Yahweh]; make straight in the wilderness a highway for our God [Elohim].' Mark's Gospel tells us that Isaiah's words were fulfilled in the ministry of John the Baptist preparing the way for Jesus Christ (Mark 1:2-4). Still another illustration is Isaiah 6:1-5, where the prophet recounts his vision of Yahweh `seated on a throne, high and exalted' (verse 1). He said, `Holy, holy, holy is the LORD [Yahweh] Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory' (verse 3). Isaiah also quotes Yahweh as saying: `I am the LORD; that is my name! I will not give my glory to another' (42:8). Later, the apostle John-under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit-wrote that Isaiah `saw Jesus' glory' (John 12:41). Yahweh's glory and Jesus' glory are equated." (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.62-64. Emphasis & parentheses original).

"Jesus as Jehovah The amount of material in the Bible supporting the teaching that Jesus Christ is Jehovah God is actually quite staggering. Here we can summarize only some of the remaining highlights. Mention has already been made of Philippians 2:9-11, which says that Jesus has been given `the name which is above every name,' the name Lord, or Jehovah. Even clearer is Romans 10:9-13. Here we are told to confess Jesus as Lord (vv. 9-10), confident that no one trusting in him, that is, in Jesus, the rock over which the Jews stumbled, will be disappointed (v. 11; cf. 9:33), because he is Lord for both Jew and Greek, rich to all who call upon him for salvation (v. 12). Then verse 13 concludes that whoever will call upon the name of the Lord will be saved. In context, this must be Jesus, because he is the Lord on whom all must call to be saved, as verses 9-12 have said; but the NWT translates `Lord' here as `Jehovah,' because it is a quote from Joel 2:32, where the original Hebrew has the divine name! Thus Jesus is here identified as Jehovah. Similar is 1 Peter 2:3, which is nearly an exact quotation from Psalm 34:8, where the Lord is Jehovah; but from verses 4-8 it is also clear that the Lord in verse 3 is Jesus. Besides the name Jehovah and the title God, Jesus has other titles belonging exclusively to Jehovah. Jesus is the first and the last (Rev. 1:17; 22:13; cf. Isa. 44:6). He is the King of kings and Lord of lords (1 Tim. 6:15; Rev. 17:14; 19:16). Used in a spiritual, ultimate sense, Jesus is revealed to be God by his having the titles Savior (Luke 2:11; John 4:42; 1 John 4:14; cf. Isa. 43:11; 45:21-22; 1 Tim. 4:10), Shepherd (John 10:11; Heb. 13:20; cf. Ps. 23:1; Isa. 40:11), and Rock (1 Cor. 10:4; cf. Isa. 44:8). Jesus also receives the honors due to Jehovah God alone. He is to receive the same honor given to the Father (John 5:23). He is to be feared (Eph. 5:21), to receive absolute love (Matt. 10:37), and to be the object of the same faith we have in God (John 3:16; 14:1). He receives prayer (John 14:14; Acts 7:59-60 compared with Luke 23:34, 46; Rom. 10:12-13; 1 Cor. 1:2; etc.), worship (Matt. 28:17; Heb. 1:6), and sacred service (Rev. 22:3). Jesus also possesses the unique characteristics, or attributes, of God. He is exactly like God, the very image of his Father (Col. 1:15; Heb. 1:3). All the fullness of God's nature dwells in Christ in bodily form (Col. 2:9). In another book the JWs make this interesting comment on Colossians 2:9: `Being truly `divinity,' or of `divine nature,' does not make Jesus as the Son of God coequal and coeternal with the Father, any more than the fact that all humans share `humanity' or `human nature' makes them coequal or all the same age.' Of course people who share human nature are not the same age, but that is in keeping with the fact that all human beings have a beginning. But the point is that just as a human son is just as `human' as his father, so Jesus Christ, who is said in Colossians 2:9 to be fully `divine,' is therefore no less divine than his Father. The Bible also names specific attributes unique to God that are possessed by Christ. He is self-existent (John 5:26); unchanging (Heb. 1:10-12; 13:8); eternal (John 1:1-2; 8:58; 17:5; Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:2, 12), omnipresent, an attribute that JWs deny even to God (Matt 18:20; 28:20; Eph. 1:23; 4:10; Col. 3:11); and beyond human comprehension (Matt. 11:25-27). This last point bears emphasizing. The biblical teaching that Jesus Christ is Jehovah, the Lord of all, God in the flesh, is found throughout the New Testament. Yet it remains hidden from those who seek God on their own terms, who demand that he be comprehensible to them. No one can know that Jesus Christ is the Lord Jehovah apart from the revelation of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 12:3)." (Bowman, R.M., "Why You Should Believe in the Trinity: An Answer to Jehovah's Witnesses," [1989], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Third printing, 1990, pp.108-110).

"JESUS' IDENTITY WITH YAHWEH/JEHOVAH The NT attributes to Jesus many of the perfections of Yahweh (or, Jehovah), the creator/redeemer God of the OT. There are seven main points of identity. God's name When the OT was translated into Greek in the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC (the Septuagint), the sacred name of God, YHWH, usually rendered Yahweh or Jehovah, was translated by the Greek word Kyrios (Lord); there are approaching 7,000 instances of this. This sacred and exalted title was attributed directly to Jesus (Rom. 10:9; 1 Cor. 12:3; Phil. 2:11; etc., cf. also Lord of lords, 1 Tim. 6:15; Rev. 17:14; 19:16). Indeed the confession Jesus is Lord is probably the earliest confession of faith (Rom. 10:9; 1 Cor. 12:3; 2 Cor. 4:5). On several occasions NT writers apply OT passages concerning Yahweh directly to Jesus (Acts 2:34f.; Rom. 8:34; Heb. 10:12f.; 1 Pet. 3:22 apply Ps. 110:1. Rom. 10:13 applies Joel 2:32. Phil. 2:9-11 applies Is. 45:23. Jn. 12:41 applies Is. 6:10. Eph. 4:8 applies Ps. 68:18). These passages clearly identify Jesus with Yahweh. Another link is provided by self-designations of God appropriated by Jesus or referred to him. Supremely significant is the I AM (Ex. 3:14; cf. Jn. 8:58; 6:35; 8:12,24; 11:25; 14:6; 18:5f.; Mk. 14:62). Others are bridegroom (Is. 62:5; Je. 2:2; Ezk. 16:8; cf. Mk. 2:19f.; Jn. 3:29; 2 Cor. 11:2; Rev. 19:7); shepherd (Pss. 23:1; 80:1; Is. 40:11; Ezk. 34:15; cf. Jn. 10:11-16; Heb. 13:10; 1 Pet. 2:25; 5:4); the first and the last (Is. 44:6; 48:12; cf. Rev. 2:8; 22:13). God's glory God's glory is the visible manifestation of his majesty (Ex. 24:15-18; 40:34f.; Lv. 9:6,23f.; 2 Ch. 7:1-3; Is. 6:1-4; Ezk. 1:28). In Judaism it served as a reverential substitute for the sacred name itself. God's glory is incommunicable (Is. 42:8; 48:11), yet the NT speaks of Isaiah 6:1f. as the manifestation of Jesus' glory (Jn. 12:41), and of Jesus as the manifestation of the glory of God (1 Cor. 2:8; 2 Cor. 4:4; Heb. 1:3; Jas. 2:1; cf. Jn. 17:5). God's worship To offer worship to any other being than the LORD God (Yahweh) was for the Jew unthinkably offensive, the most fundamental of all sins (Ex. 20:3-6; Dt. 6:4f.,13-15). Yet the earliest disciples, Jews to a man, directed worship to Jesus. It is this fact which, despite their comparative infrequency, makes the NT ascriptions of deity to Christ so overwhelmingly impressive. Doxologies are ascribed to Christ (Rom. 9:5; 2 Tim. 4:18; 2 Pet. 3:18; Rev. 1:5f.); two are addressed to both Father and Son (Rev. 5:13; 7:10). Prayers are addressed to Christ (Acts 7:59f.; 9:13f.; 1 Cor. 16:22; Rev. 22:20). OT worship passages are transferred from Yahweh to Christ (Is. 8:13f. in Rom. 9:33; 1 Pet. 2:7f.; 3:15; the Septuagint version of Dt. 32:43 in Heb. 1:6). Worship is used in connection with Christ: in the Septuagint the common translation of shalah (worship, bow down) is proskyneia. In Jesus' teaching it describes the attitude we should adopt to God alone (Mt. 4:10). The evangelists, however, use the word to describe people's attitude to Jesus (Mt. 2:2,8,11; 14:33; Mk. 5:6; Jn. 9:38). Hence the reaction of the disciples to the risen Christ is typical: `they worshipped him' (Mt. 28:17; Lk. 24:52), a response echoed by the angelic company of heaven: `Worthy is the Lamb, who was slain, to receive ... honour and glory and praise!' (Rev. 5:12), an unambiguous assertion of deity. God's creation That Yahweh created all things and is therefore Lord of all was axiomatic for OT faith (Gn. 1:1f.; Pss. 33:6-9; 148:5f.; Is. 42:5; 48:13; 51:9-16). Yet the NT freely applies this divine function to Jesus. ... Through him all things came to be (Jn. 1:1,3; Heb. 1:3; cf. Col. 1:16; 1 Jn. 1:1); he is the sustainer and upholder of all things (Mt. 28:18; 1 Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3); he is the one in whom the universe is destined to be brought to its goal (Rom. 11:36; Eph. 1:9f.; Col. 1:16); and the `new creation' is nothing other than the realization of the purpose of God in Jesus Christ (Is. 65:17; 66:22 ... cf. Jn. 3:5; 20:22; 2 Cor. 5:17; Phil. 3:20; Col. 3:10; 2 Pet. 3; Rev. 21-22).God's salvation Yahweh is a saviour God, another bedrock of OT conviction. In contrast with other gods, he alone has power to save: `I, even I am the LORD, and apart from me there is no saviour' (Is. 43:11; cf. 45:21; Je. 3:23; 11:12). His deliverance came frequently by way of human `saviours' (Jos. 10:6; Jdg. 2:16,18; 6:14f.), but the forgiving of sins and the raising from death to eternal life are prerogatives of God alone. Yet the NT attributes these to Jesus. At birth he was hailed as the one who `will save his people from their sins' (Mt. 1:21). He claimed the power to grant forgiveness (Mk. 2:7-10; Lk. 7:48) and is seen as the saviour of sinners (Jn. 3:17; Acts 4:12; 5:31; 15:11; Gal. 1:4; Eph. 5:23; Heb. 7:25; Rev. 1:5). He raised the dead (Mk. 5:35-43; Lk. 7:11-17,22; Jn. 11) and through him eternal life is given now to all who believe in him (Mk. 10:21; Jn. 3:16; 5:24; 1 Jn. 5:11f.) and will be fully experienced by them in the future (Mk. 10:30; 1 Cor. 15:22f.,54; 1 Thes. 1:10; 2 Tim. 1:10). God's judgment For the OT Yahweh alone is judge. His holiness and majesty are essentially expressed in his righteous judgments (Dt. 32:4; Ps. 99; Is. 5:16). Certain forms of divine judgment were realized through human agents (Dt. 1:16f.; Is. 10:5; 45:1), but final judgment was God's prerogative (Dn. 7:9f.; Ec. 12:14; Joel 2:31). Once again these uniquely divine functions are both claimed by Jesus and freely attributed to him (Mt. 25:31-46; Mk. 8:38; Jn. 5:22-30; Acts 17:31; 2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Thes. 1:7-10; Rev. 14:14-20). At the Last Day Jesus will submit `the secrets of men' (Rom. 2:16) to definitive, divine judgment. God's witness One final link between Jesus and Yahweh may be noted. In the OT God commissions his people ` "You are my witnesses," declares the LORD' (Is. 43:10); yet in Acts 1:8 Jesus sends out his apostles with identical words `You will be my witnesses'." (Milne, B., "Know the Truth: A Handbook of Christian Belief," [1982], Inter-Varsity Press: Leicester UK, Fifth printing, 1988, pp.129-132. Emphasis original).

"The doctrine of the deity of Christ is crucial to the Christian faith. `What think you of Christ?' is the paramount question of life (cf. Matt. 16:15; 22:42). Surely Jesus Christ is the greatest of all men, but he is infinitely more than mere man. It can be demonstrated that he is God in several ways.... His identification with the Old Testament Jehovah. Things that are in the Old Testament said of Jehovah are in the New Testament said of Christ. He was the creator (Ps. 102:24-27; Heb. 1:10-12), was seen by Isaiah (Isa. 6:1-4; John 12:41), was to be preceded by a forerunner (Isa. 40:3; Matt. 3:3), disciplines his people (Num. 21:6f.; 1 Cor. 10:9), is to be regarded as holy (Isa. 8:13; 1 Pet. 3:15), is to lead captivity captive (Ps. 68:18; Eph. 4:8), and is to be the object of faith (Joel 2:32; Rom. 10:9, 13)." (Thiessen, H.C. & Doerksen, V.D., 1979, "Lectures in Systematic Theology," [1949], Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, Revised, pp.92-93. My emphasis).

"Jesus Is Jahweh Not only is Jesus called God in the New Testament but he is called Lord in quotations from the Old Testament where the Old Testament word is Jahweh. In the prophecy of Zacharias (Luke 1:76) it is said of John the Baptist, `And thou, child, shalt be called Prophet of the Most High; thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways.' It is obvious that Luke understood this prophecy as referring to John as the forerunner of Jesus. But Zacharias was alluding to Malachi 3:1 in which the word `the Lord' is Jahweh. `Behold I will send my messenger and he shall prepare the way before me, saith Jahweh of hosts:' Thus `the Lord,' whose ways John was to prepare, is none other than Jahweh Himself. Paul gives great emphasis to the prophecy of Joel. `Whosoever will call upon the name of the Lord will be saved' (Rom. 10:13). It is clear in the context that Paul is calling Christ `the Lord,' but in Joel 2:32, in the phrase, `Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be delivered,' `the Lord' in the Hebrew text is Jahweh. In the Romans 14:10 reference to the judgment of the saints, Paul adds a quotation from Isaiah 45:23. `As I live saith the Lord, every knee will bow to me and every tongue will confess to God:' That Jahweh is the speaker in Isaiah's words is evident from verses 24 and 25. These passages indicate that Christ and God and Jahweh are one." (Buswell, J.O., Jr., "A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion," [1962], Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, Vol. I, 1968, Second printing, pp.104-105. Emphasis original).

"Jesus Claimed to Be Yahweh. Yahweh (YHWH; sometimes appearing in English translations as `Jehovah' or in small capital letters as `LORD') is the special name given by God for himself in the Old Testament. It is the name revealed to Moses in Exodus 3:14, when God said, `I AM WHO I AM.' Other titles for God may be used of humans, such as Adonai ('Lord') in Gen. 18:12, or false gods, such as elohim ('gods') in Deut. 6:14. Yahweh, however, only refers to the one true God. No other person or thing was to be worshiped or served (Exod. 20:5), and his name and glory were not to be given to another. Isaiah wrote, `This is what the LORD says.... I am the first, and I am the last; apart from me there is no God' (Isa. 44:6) and, `I am the LORD; that is my name! I will not give my glory to another, or my praise to idols' (42:8). Jesus claimed to be Yahweh. He prayed, `And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was' (John 17:5). But Yahweh of the Old Testament said, `my glory will I not give to another' (Isa. 42:8). Jesus also declared, `I am the first and the last' (Rev. 1:17)-precisely the words used by Jehovah in Isaiah 42:8 [Isa 44:6]. He said, `I am the good shepherd' (John 10:11), but the Old Testament said, `Yahweh is my shepherd' (Ps. 23:1). Further, Jesus claimed to be the judge of all people (Matt. 25:31f.; John 5:27f.), but Joel quotes Jehovah as saying, `for there I will sit to judge all the nations on every side' (Joel 3:12). Likewise, Jesus spoke of himself as the `bridegroom' (Matt. 25:1) while the Old Testament identifies Jehovah in this way (Isa. 62:5; Hos. 2:16). While the Psalmist declares, `The LORD is my light' (Ps. 27:1), Jesus said, `I am the light of the world' (John 8:12). Perhaps the strongest claim Jesus made to be Yahweh is in John 8:58, where he says, `Before Abraham was, I am.' This statement claims not only existence before Abraham, but equality with the `I AM' of Exodus 3:14. The Jews around him clearly understood his meaning and picked up stones to kill him for blaspheming (cf. John 8:58 and 10:31-33). The same claim is made in Mark 14:62 and John 18:5-6." (Geisler, N.L., "Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics," Baker Books: Grand Rapids MI, 1999, p.129. Emphasis original).

"Statements which in the Old Testament are made distinctly of Jehovah, God, [are] taken in the New Testament to refer to Jesus Christ. (1) Ps. 102:24-27-`I said, O my God, take me not away in the midst of my days: thy years are throughout all generations. Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens are the work of thy hands. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed: But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end.' In Heb. 1:10-12-`And thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of Thy hands. They shall perish; but thou remainest; and they all shall wax old as doth a garment. And as a vesture shalt thou fold them up, and they shall be changed: but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail'-this statement is interpreted as referring to JESUS CHRIST. (2) Is. 40:3, 4-`The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD (Jehovah), make straight in the desert the highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain.' In Matt. 3:3; Luke 1:68, 69, 76-`Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people. And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David. And thou, child shall be called the prophet of the highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways'-JESUS is the Lord before whose face the messenger goes. (3) Jer. 11:20 -'But, O LORD of hosts, that judgest righteously, that triest the reins and the heart, let me see thy vengeance on them: for unto thee have I revealed my cause.' Jer. 17:10 -'I, the LORD, search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings.' In Rev. 2:23-`And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works'-it is JESUS who does what is distinctly said of Jehovah in the Old Testament passage. (4) Is. 60:19 -'The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory.' (See also Zech. 2:5.) This is said of Jesus in Luke 2:32 -'A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.' (5) Is. 6:1, 3, 10 -'In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the LORD sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. And one cried unto another and said, Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert and be healed.' (Compare Jno. 12:37-41 -'But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him. That the Saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again, He hath blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their hearts and be converted, and I should heal them. These things said Esaias when he saw his glory, and spake of him.') In the Old Testament passage it was when he saw the glory of Jehovah of hosts that Isaiah spoke these things, but in the New Testament John says it was when Isaiah saw the glory of JESUS CHRIST that he said this. The inference is simple. (6) Is. 8:13, 14 -'Sanctify the LORD of hosts himself: and let him be your fear, and let him be your dread. And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offense to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.' (Compare 1 Pet. 2:7, 8 -'Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner, and a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.') In the Old Testament Jehovah is the stone of stumbling, etc. In the New Testament it is JESUS CHRIST. (7) Is. 8:12, 13 -'Say ye not, a confederacy, to all them to whom this people shall say, a confederacy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid. Sanctify the LORD of hosts Himself; and let him be your fear, and let him be your dread.' (Compare 1 Pet. 3:14 -'But and if ye should suffer for righteousness' sake, blessed are ye: and fear not their fear neither be troubled; but sanctify in your hearts Christ as Lord: being ready always to give answer to every man that asketh you a reason concerning the hope that is in you, yet with meekness and fear.') (8) Num. 21:6, 7 -'And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died. Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that he take away the serpents from us, and Moses prayed for the people.' (Compare 1 Cor. 10:9 -'Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.') (9) Ps. 23:1 -'The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.' Is. 40:10, 11 -'Behold, the Lord GOD will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him: behold his reward is with him, and his work before him. He shall feed his flock like a shepherd: he shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young.' (Compare Jno. 10:11 -'I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.') In the Old Testament Jehovah is the good shepherd; in the New Testament JESUS. (10) Ezek. 34:11, 12, 18 -'For thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out. As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day. Seemeth it a small thing unto you to have eaten up the good pasture, but ye must tread down with your feet the residue of your pasture? and to have drunk of the deep waters, but ye must foul the residue with your feet? ` (Compare Luke 19:10 -'For the Son of Man is come to seek and to save that which was lost.') In the O. T. Jehovah, in the N.T. JESUS `seeks and saves the lost." (Torrey, R. A., "What the Bible Teaches: A Thorough and Comprehensive Study of What the Bible Has to Say Concerning the Great Doctrines of Which it Treats," [1957], Oliphants: London, Third impression, 1963, pp.77-80. Emphasis original).

"In the New Testament, there are passages in which what is said in the Old Testament concerning Jehovah is applied to Jesus Christ. Compare Numbers 14:2; 21:5, 6; Ps. 95:9, with 1 Cor. 10:9. Here the tempting of Jehovah is the tempting of Christ. ... In Heb. 1:10, 11, what is attributed to Jehovah in Ps. 102:26, is attributed to Christ. In John 12:40, 41, it is asserted that the language of Isaiah (6:9, 10) concerning Jehovah refers to Jesus Christ. Isa. 45:23, compared with Rom. 14:10, 11 ... shows that the judgment-seat of God is the judgment-seat of Christ. ... Joel 2:32 compared with Rom. 10:13, proves that the name of Jehovah is the name of Christ. In Eph. 4:8, 9, Christ gives the gifts that in Ps. 68:18 are given by Jehovah." (Shedd, W.G.T., "Dogmatic Theology," [1888], Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted, 1969, Vol. I, p.315).

"Old Testament descriptions of God are applied to him. This application to Christ of titles and names exclusively appropriated to God is inexplicable, if Christ was not regarded as being himself God. The peculiar awe with which the term 'Jehovah' was set apart by a nation of strenuous monotheists as the sacred and incommunicable name of the one self-existent and covenant-keeping God forbids the belief that the Scripture writers could have used it as the designation of a subordinate and created being. Mat. 3:3 = `Make ye ready the way of the Lord'-is a quotation from Is. 40:3 = `Prepare ye ... the way of Jehovah.' John 12:41 = `These things said Isaiah, because he saw his glory; and he spake of him' [i. e., Christ] -refers to Is. 6:1 -`In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne;' So inEph. 4:7, 8 -`measure of the gift of Christ ... led captivity captive `-is an application to Christ of what is said of Jehovah in Ps. 68:18. In 1 Pet. 3:15, moreover, we read ... `sanctify in your hearts Christ as Lord'; here the apostle borrows his language from Is. 8:13, where we read: `Jehovah of hosts, him shall ye sanctify.' When we remember that, with the Jews, God's covenant-title was so sacred that for ... Jehovah there was always substituted ... Adonai, in order to avoid pronunciation of the great Name, it seems the more remarkable that the Greek equivalent of `Jehovah' should have been so constantly used of Christ. Cf. Rom. 10:9 = `confess ... Jesus as Lord'; 1 Cor. 12:3 = `no man can say, Jesus is Lord, but in the Holy Spirit' We must remember also the indignation of the Jews at Christ's assertion of his equality and oneness with the Father. [Jn 10:30-33] .... Yet James, the strongest of Hebrews, in his Epistle uses the word `Lord' freely and alternately of God the Father [Jas 1:7; 3:9; 4:10,15; 5:4,10-11,14-15] and of Christ the Son [Jas 1:1; 2:1; 5:7-8]. This would have been impossible if James had not believed in the community of essence between the Son and the Father." (Strong, A.H., "Systematic Theology," [1907], Judson Press: Valley Forge PA, Twenty-fifth printing, 1967, p.309).

"Divinity of Christ in Old Testament. ... The Messianic predictions of the Old Testament have formed the subject by themselves, of large volumes; I can, therefore, do little more than enumerate the most conclusive of them as to His divinity, giving the preference, of course, to those of them which are interpreted of, and applied to, Jesus Christ, by the infallible exposition of the New Testament. Compare, then, Num. xiv:22, and xxi:5, 6, and Ps. xcv:9, with I Cor. x:9. The tempting of the Lord of the Old Testament, is described by Paul as tempting Christ; in consequence of which they were destroyed of serpents. Ps. cii:26, ascribes to God an immutable eternity; but Heb. i:10, 11, applies it to Jesus Christ. In Is. vi, the prophet sees a vision of Jehovah, surrounded with every circumstance of divine majesty. But Jno. xii:41, explains: `These things said Esaias, when he saw His [Jesus'] glory, and spake of Him.' Is. xlv:22, 23; Jehovah says: 'Look unto me, and be ye saved, all ye ends of the earth;' but Rom. xiv:11, and I Cor. i:30, evidently apply the context to Jesus Christ. Thus, also, compare Ps. lxviii:18, with Eph. iv:8, 9; Joel ii:32, with Rom. x:13; Is. vii:14, with Matt, i:22, 23; Micah. v:2, with Matt. ii:6, and Mal. iii:1, with Mark i:2, and Luke i:76. The last three pairs of references contain a proof peculiarly striking. In Is. vii:14, the child born of a virgin is to be named `God with us.' In Matt. i:22, 23, a child, Jesus Christ, is born of a virgin, and receives, by divine injunction, through the mouth of an angel, the name `God with us;' because He was conceived of the Holy Ghost, and was to save His people from their sins. In Micah. v:2, Bethlehem is destined to the honor of bringing forth the Ruler whose attribute was eternity; in Matt. ii:6, it is declared that this prediction is fulfilled by the appearance of Jesus Christ. In Mal, iii:1, the Angel of the Covenant is foretold. He is identified with Jesus Christ by his forerunner, John, who is expressly declared to be the person here predicted, by Luke i:76. But that this Angel is divine, is clear from his propriety in the temple (his temple) which is God's house, and from the divine functions of judge and heart-Searcher, which He there exercises. In Ps. cx:1, David calls the Messiah 'adonai though his descendant according to the flesh. In Matt. xxii:45, Christ Himself applies this to the Messiah ('What think ye of Christ? Whose Son is He?') and challenges them (in substance) to account for it without granting His divinity. And this 110th Psalm, then proceeds to ascribe to this Being eternity of priesthood, (v. 4,) as expounded in Heb. vii:3, as having ` neither beginning of days, nor end of life,' supreme authority, and judgment over mankind. The Ps. ii, describes God as setting His King upon His holy hill of Zion: who is declared to be His eternal Son, (v. 7,) the Ruler of the whole earth, (v. 8,) the sovereign avenger of His opponents, (v. 9,) and the appointed object of religious trust. Surely these are divine attributes. Compare Jer. xvii:5. But Acts iv:25-28, attribute the whole prediction to Jesus Christ. So Ps. xlv:6, calls the king God, 'elohiym and attributes to Him an everlasting throne. But Heb. i:8, applies these words to the Son, afterwards defined to be Jesus Christ. So let the student compare for himself, (for time will fail me to go into explanation of every text,) Zech. xii:10, with John xix:37, Is. lxi:1;(Speaker calls Himself I, the LORD, v. 8,) with Luke iv:18-21. Examine, also, Is. iv:2; ix:5, 6, 7; xi:4, 10; Ps. lxxii:17, 5; Dan. vii:13, 14. Zech. chap. xiii:7, compared with xi:13; xii:10; Jer. xxiii:5, 6. Ps. xcvii:7, with Heb. i:6." (Dabney, R.L., "Systematic Theology," [1871], Banner of Truth: Edinburgh, Second edition, 1878, Reprinted, 1985, pp.185-186. Emphasis original. My transliteration of Heb. and Gk. words).

"Although Jehovah's Witnesses seek to differentiate sharply between Jehovah God and Jesus his creature, it is a remarkable fact that occasionally writers in the New Testament apply to Jesus Christ passages from the Old Testament which refer to Jehovah. ... (a) Isaiah promises that `Jehovah will be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory' (60:19). Luke applies this to Jesus, quoting it in the form, `A light for revelation to the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel' (2:32). (b) Isaiah's vision in the Temple (6:1, 3, 10) was of Jehovah. In the Gospel of John, however, it is said that Isaiah saw the glory of Jesus Christ and spoke of him (12:37-41, see especially verse 41). (c) In Psalm 28:1 and Isaiah 40:10-11, Jehovah is said to be our shepherd. In John 10:11 Jesus, with obvious reference to the Old Testament passages, claims to be the good shepherd. (d) Paul quotes the promise in Joel, `Whosoever shall call upon the name of Jehovah shall be delivered' (2:32), and refers it to Jesus: `If thou shalt confess with thy mouth Jesus as Lord, and shalt believe in thy heart that God raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved ... for, whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved" (Rom. 10:9, 13)." (Metzger, B.M., "The Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ," Reprint of article in Theology Today, April, 1953, pp.65-85, Princeton Theological Seminary: Princeton NJ, 1953, pp.73-74).

"JESUS, THE CHRIST. ... DIVINITY OF: As Jehovah, Isa. 40:3, with Matt. 3:3; Jehovah of glory, Psa. 24:7,10, with 1 Cor. 2:8; Jas. 2:1; Jehovah our righteousness, Jer. 23:5,6, with 1 Cor. 1:30; Jehovah above all, Psa. 97:9, with John 3:31; Jehovah the first and the last, Isa. 44:6, with Rev. 1:17; Isa. 48:12-16, with Rev. 22:13; Jehovah's fellow and equal, Zech. 13:7; Phil, 2:6; Jehovah of hosts, Isa. 6:1-3, with John 12:41; Isa. 8:13,14, with 1 Pet. 2:8; Jehovah, Psa. 110:1, with Matt. 22:42-45; Jehovah the shepherd, Isa. 40:10,11; Heb. 13:20; Jehovah, for whose glory all things were created, Prov. 16:4, with Col. 1:16; Jehovah the messenger of the covenant, Mal. 3:1, with Luke 7:27. Invoked as Jehovah, Joel 2:32, with 1 Cor. 1:2; as the eternal God and Creator, Psa. 102:24-27, with Heb. 1:8,10-12; the mighty God, Isa. 9:6; the great God and Saviour, Hos. 13:4, with Tit. 2:13; God over all, Rom. 9:5; God the Judge, Eccl. 12:14, with 1 Cor. 4:5; 2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Tim. 4:1; Emmanuel, Isa. 7:14, with Matt. 1:23; King of kings and Lord of lords, Deut. 10:17, with Rev. 1:5; 17:14; the Holy One, 1 Sam. 2:2, with Acts 3:14; the Lord from heaven, 1 Cor. 15:47; Lord of the Sabbath, Gen. 2:3, with Matt. 12:8; Lord of all, Acts 10:36; Rom. 10:11-13; Son of God, Matt. 26:63-67; the only begotten Son of the Father, John 1:14, 18; 3:16,18; 1 John 4:9. His blood is called the blood of God, Acts 20:28. One with the Father, John 10:30,38; 12:45; 14:7-10; 17:10. As sending the Spirit equally with the Father, John 14:16, with John 15:26. As unsearchable equally with the Father, Prov. 30:4; Matt. 11:27. As Creator of all things, Isa. 40:28; John 1:3; Col. 1:16; supporter and preserver of all things, Neh. 9:6, with Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3." (Nave, O.J., ed., "Nave's Topical Bible: A Digest of the Holy Scriptures," [1897], Moody Press: Chicago IL, Reprinted, 1969, p.665. Emphasis original. Typos corrected).

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