Saturday, March 8, 2008

Was Jesus executed on a cross or a stake? #2A: Linguistic

[See also Introduction #1; #2B, #2C; Historical #3A, #3B, #3C, #3D]

Continuing from part #1 Introduction of this series on whether Jesus was executed on a stake, as the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society has maintained since 1936 (Rutherford, 1936; Watchman Expositor, 2007), or on a cross as the Christian Church maintains.

[Above (click to enlarge): Jesus crucified on a cross as depicted in the late Watchtower President Judge Rutherford's book, "Creation," 1927, p.209, i.e. "Jesus was crucified ... upon the cross." (pp.246-247. My emphasis bold)]

This part #2: Linguistic, will examine the Watchtower Society's evidence and arguments, that Jesus was not executed on a cross but on a stake, based mainly on the meaning of the Greek words which are usually translated "cross" (stauros), and its Latin equivalent crux, "crucify" (stauroo) and "tree" (xylon) in mainstream English Bible translations, but are respectively translated "torture stake," "impale" and "stake" in the Society's New World Translation.

My method in this series of posts is to quote in bold from the Society's own publications - mainly from "The Kingdom Interlinear Translation" (1985), "Reasoning from the Scriptures" (1989) and "What Does the Bible Really Teach?" (2005), and then comment on that quote. Where a different major topic (i.e. #3 Historical, #4 Patristic, #5 Archaeological, #6 Pagan or #7 Biblical ) arises from the one under consideration, it will either be briefly commented on, or excised with ellipses, or otherwise ignored, for separate consideration on its merits in the post for that topic. References are hyperlinked to its respective `tagline' quote below.

3C "Torture Stake" Gr. stau·ros' (stau·ros'); Lat., crux. "Torture stake" in Matthew 27:40 is used in connection with the execution of Jesus at Calvary, that is, Skull Place. (KIT, 1985, p.1149) .The word "torture" is not in the original Greek

[Above(click to enlarge): Matthew 27:40 in the 1985 Kingdom Interlinear Translation (KIT), showing that "torture" is not in the original Greek but has been added by the Watchtower Society]

There are in fact two Gk. words for "torture": basanizo (Mt 8:29; 18:34; Mk 5:7; Lk 8:28; Rev 9:5; 18:7 NIV); and tumpanizo (Heb 11:35 NIV) that the New Testament (NT) writers could have used, but did not, in any of the 27 times that stauros appears in the NT: Mt 10:38; 16:24; 27:32,40,42; Mk 8:34; 15:21,30,32; Lk 9:23; 14:27; 23:26; Jn 19:17,19,25,31; 1Cor 1:17,18; Gal 5:11; 6:12,14; Eph 2:16; Php 2:8; 3:18; Col 1:20; 2:14; Heb 12:2. So the Watchtower Society is guilty of adding a word "torture" to Scripture 27 times that isn't there in the original Greek!

There is no evidence that the Greek word stau·ros' here meant a cross Since the Watchtower makes an absolute claim, i.e. "There is no evidence that the Greek word stau·ros' here" in Mt 27:40 (and by extension all the other 26 times stauros occurs in the NT "in connection with the execution of Jesus"), all that needs to be done is show that there is some "evidence that the Greek word stau·ros' here meant a cross" and the Society loses its case! In fact we will not just show there is some evidence that stauros means "cross" here and elsewhere in the NT, but that there is overwhelming and conclusive evidence that it does!

such as the pagans used as a religious symbol for many centuries before Christ. As we shall see under #6 Pagan, the Watchtower here `shoots itself in the foot' by admitting that "pagans used [a cross] as a religious symbol for many centuries before Christ"! So then, why would not those pagans for all those "many centuries before Christ" at some point start to execute their enemies on an apparatus patterned after that "religious symbol"? Especially given that not even the Watchtower denies that those same pagans did at some "later" point start doing it!

In the classical Greek the word stau·ros' meant merely an upright stake, or pale, or a pile such as is used for a foundation. This is false, dishonest and fallacious. First, it is false that, "In classical Greek the word stau·ros' meant merely an upright stake ..." Liddell and Scott's ,"A Greek-English Lexicon", a classical Greek lexicon, states: "stauros ... upright pale or stake,... cross, as the instrument of crucifixion ... its form was represented by the Greek letter T..." (Liddell & Scott, 1883, p.1635. My emphasis). Second, it is dishonest because the Society quotes from "A Greek-English Lexicon, by Liddell and Scott" in its Reasoning from the Scriptures (1982, 1989) about the meaning of, xylon, one of those other Greek words relating to the cross, as we shall see, so the Society must know that even "In the classical Greek the word stau·ros'" did not mean "merely an upright stake, or pale" but it also meant a "cross" with "its form ... represented by the Greek letter T" (my emphasis). Third, it is fallacious, because even if "In the classical Greek the word stau·ros' meant merely an upright stake," "The New Testament was not written in classical Greek, the form of Greek spoken between 1000 and 330 B.C." but "in Koine Greek" (Evert, 2001, p.99). And this Koine (or Hellenistic, or New Testament) Greek had a "completely different vocabulary" and "many peculiarities of its own" compared to Classical Greek, such that a book, "Teach Yourself [Classical] Greek ... was useless after the first few lessons" in teaching New Testament Greek (Hudson, 1960, p.v).

The verb stau·ro'o meant to fence with pales, to form a stockade, or palisade. Again the Watchtower Society does not tell the whole truth. As can be seen in the same `tagline' quote below from Liddell & Scott, 1883, p.1635, the verb "staur-oo" in classical Greek meant not only to "fence with pales" but also to "crucify" (emphasis original).

The inspired writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures wrote in the common (koi·ne') Greek Indeed! And Koine Greek was "spoken and written from the 4th century BC" ("Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1984, Vol. v, p.871. My emphasis).

and used the word stau·ros' to mean the same thing as in the classical Greek, namely, a simple stake, or pale, without a crossbeam of any kind at any angle. So the Watchtower's claim is that the original meaning of stauros in classical Greek, which was indeed "an upright stake, or pale, or a pile such as is used for a foundation," never changed into a secondary meaning of a cross, where "a crossbeam" was added to the original upright stake? Despite the major transition from classical Greek to Koine and the four centuries from the time that Koine Greek began to be "spoken and written" in "the 4th century BC" to the time of Christ. But this is false. The following leading New Testament Greek Lexicons, all say that "the word stau·ros'" which originally meant "a simple stake, or pale" by the time of Jesus secondarily came to mean with "a crossbeam" forming a "cross," "shaped like a T or ... †" :

"stauros ... an upright pale or stake ... the Roman instrument of crucifixion, the Cross ..." (Abbott-Smith, 1937, pp.415-416).

"stauros ... a stake sunk into the earth in an upright position; a cross-piece was oft. ...attached to its upper part, so that it was shaped like a T or thus †." (Arndt & Gingrich, 1957, p.772).

"stauros ... an upright stake. ... an instrument of torture for serious offences, .... The cross was a vertical, pointed stake ... or it consisted of an upright with a cross-beam above it ..." (Kittel & Friedrich, 1971, p.572).

"stauros ... 1. an upright stake, esp. a pointed one ... 2. a cross; ... borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians ... This horrible punishment the innocent Jesus also suffered" (Thayer, 1901, p.586).

There is no proof to the contrary. There can be no "proof" in an absolute sense, of any ancient historical event, including that Jesus was executed on a cross, not a stake. But as ex-JW Professor Jim Penton points out, "Although there is no conclusive proof, there is evidence that Christ died on a cross" (Penton, 1997, p.372).


Regarding the meaning of stau·ros', W. E. Vine, in his work An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (1966 reprint), Vol. I, p. 256, states: ... The blurb on the front cover of my copy of the late Plymouth Brethren schoolmaster William Edwy Vine's (1873-1949) English-New Testament Greek dictionary states that. "It is at once a concordance, a dictionary and a commentary." I will respond later under #3 Historical and #6 Pagan to Vine's "commentary" on the pagan and alleged ecclesiastical-historical origin of the Cross in this quote , and only comment here on its"dictionary" aspects. Here is what the quote says when Vine's "commentary" is removed, leaving only the "dictionary" meaning of the Greek word stauros:

"CROSS, CRUCIFY A. Noun. STAUROS (σταυροσ) denotes, primarily, an upright pale or stake. .... Both the noun and the verb σταυροο, to fasten to a stake or pale, are originally to be distinguished from the ecclesiastical form of a two beamed cross. ... The σταυροσ denotes (a) the cross, or stake itself, e.g., Matt. 27:32 ; (b) the crucifixion suffered, e.g., 1 Cor. 1:17, 18 ..." (Vine, W.E., "An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words: With Their Precise Meanings for English Readers," [1940], Oliphants: London, Nineteenth impression, 1969, Vol. I., pp.256-257)

Note that Vine included stauros under "Cross," and he says that "stauros denotes (a) the cross .... " Vine also used the verb "crucify," not the Watchtower's "impale." And Vine's does not actually deny that Jesus died on a "two beamed cross," just that "originally" the word meant "a stake or pale," which no one denies. However, if Vine did believe that Jesus did not die on a "two beamed cross" (presumably due to Vine's repugnance of the cross' pagan origin, and therefore it must have been the "3rd cent. A.D." introduction into an alleged "apostate ecclesiastical system"), then as we shall see after we consider the #3 Historical, #4 Patristic, and #5 Archaeological evidence, Vine would have been "flat wrong" Bowman, 1991, p.144!

This post is will be too long if I include my comments on what the Society wrote about the meaning of the other two words, crux the Latin equivalent of stauros, and xylon, which the NWT translates "stake" and all other mainstream English translations render "tree," in those verses where the structure upon which Jesus was executed is meant. So I have made this part #2A and will continue in part #2B.

Stephen E. Jones.
My other blogs: CreationEvolutionDesign & TheShroudofTurin

" Despite the fact that Rutherford depicted Jesus on the cross in several of his books, he would in 1936 begin to change his position to what would become the current Watchtower Society position - that of the torture stake theory. This theory says that Jesus did not die on a cross but rather on a single upright post, hand over hand with a single nail through both hands. In his book Riches, Rutherford wrote, `The death of the perfect man Jesus would, in any manner inflicted, meet the requirements of the law, because death was the penalty inflicted upon Adam. Why, then, was Jesus crucified? Jesus was crucified, not on a cross of wood, such as is exhibited in many images and pictures, and which images are made and exhibited by men; Jesus was crucified by nailing his body to a tree' (p. 27). This torture stake theory, started by Rutherford, would be clarified over the next several decades. In 1972, the Watchtower wrote an article discussing Christian cross came to be accepted by professed Christians. After being led to adopt the cross as a sacred symbol, professed Christians began depicting the body of one crucified thereon.' They continue with `No Biblical evidence even intimates that Jesus died on a cross." (Awake!, 8 November 1972, p. 28)." ("Jehovah's Witnesses and the Cross," Watchman Expositor, 23 May 2007).

"The Watchtower's use of the phrase `classical Greek' will sound scholarly to the unsuspecting reader, who will assume that the Watchtower has again provided him with the ancient truths of the Bible that apostate Christendom has lost. But one significant fact is omitted here: The New Testament was not written in classical Greek, the form of Greek spoken between 1000 and 330 B.C., so it does not matter what stauros meant in that dialect. The manuscripts of the New Testament are in Koine Greek-which is Hellenistic rather than classical Greek-in which stauros can be translated as (1) an upright stake with a cross-beam above it, (2) two intersecting beams of equal length, or (3) a vertical, pointed stake. [Kittel, G. & Friedrich, G., eds., "Theological Dictionary of the New Testament," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, 1971, p.7:572]" (Evert, J., 2001, "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses," Catholic Answers: El Cajon CA, p.99).

See Appendix 5C of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures with References (1984) under `Torture Stake,' 1977-8. The society has, of course, pointed out something useful by noting that stauros does not necessarily mean `cross' but simply a pale or timber. But nothing demonstrates so clearly how much their scholarship is affected by dogmatism than does this issue. There is a great deal of evidence from early church fathers such as Justin Martyr that Christians in his day believed that Christ was put to death on a cross, Roman writers such as Cicero state that Roman criminals were often executed on a cross, and modern archaeology supports the theory that Jews in Jesus' day were crucified on a cross. (See Time, 18 January 1971, 64, 65.) Finally, by showing but one illustration from Justus Lipsius' De cruce libri tres - a picture of a man impaled on a crux simplex or upright pale - on page 1578 of The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures with References, Watch Tower scholars falsely leave the impression that Lipsius thought that Jesus was put to death in that way. In fact, Lipsius gives sixteen illustrations of impalement, thirteen of which show stakes with some sort of cross member. Although there is no conclusive proof, there is evidence that Christ died on a cross." (Penton, M.J. , 1997, "Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses," [1985], University of Toronto Press: Toronto ON, Second edition, p.372. Emphasis original).

"At this point, most Jehovah's Witnesses will probably appeal to W. E. Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, or to similar works, as Jehovah's Witnesses invariably do when this question comes up. ["The Truth that Leads to Eternal Life," WB&TS, 1968, pp.142-143; "Aid to Bible Understanding," WB&TS, 1971, pp.824-825.; "Reasoning from the Scriptures," WB&TS, 1985, pp.90-91] However, neither Vine nor any of the other authors who deny that Jesus died on a cross and are cited by the Watchtower publications, so far as I can tell, have dealt with the historical and archaeological evidence …. Moreover, none of them appear to have dealt with the matter of John 20:25. Despite the fact that Vine's work is generally well respected among evangelical Christians, on this matter he is flat wrong." (Bowman, R.M., Jr., 1991, "Understanding Jehovah's Witnesses: Why They Read the Bible the Way They Do," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, p.144)

"It is noteworthy that the Bible also uses the word xy'lon to identify the device used. A Greek-English Lexicon, by Liddell and Scott, defines this as meaning: `Wood cut and ready for use, firewood, timber, etc.... piece of wood, log, beam, post ... cudgel, club ... stake on which criminals were impaled ... of live wood, tree.' It also says `in NT, of the cross,' and cites Acts 5:30 and 10:39 as examples. (Oxford, 1968, pp. 1191, 1192) However, in those verses KJ, RS, JB, and Dy translate xy'lon as `tree.' (Compare this rendering with Galatians 3:13; Deuteronomy 21:22, 23.)" ("Reasoning from the Scriptures," [1985], Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1989, p.89. Ellipses original).

"Koine (from Greek koine, `common language'), the fairly uniform Hellenistic Greek spoken and written from the 4th century BC until the time of Justinian (mid-6th century AD) in Greece, Macedonia, and the parts of Africa and the Near East that had come under the influence or control of Greeks or of Hellenized rulers. Based chiefly on the Attic dialect, the Koine superseded the other ancient Greek dialects by the 2nd century AD. Koine is the language of the Greek translation of the Old Testament (the Septuagint), of the New Testament, and of the writings of the historian Polybius and the philosopher Epictetus. It forms the basis of Modern Greek. The divergences of the Koine from the classical norms gave rise in the 1st century an to a purist movement known as Atticism, which had little effect on the everyday spoken language although it influenced the written language, causing it to have archaizing tendencies." ("Koine," 1984, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Benton: Chicago IL, 15th edition, Vol. v, p.871).

"stauros ... I. The meaning of the Word. 1. stauros is an upright stake. 2 stauroi' oi katapepegotes skolopes, charakes, kai panta ta estota eula, apo tou estanai, Hesych., IV, 72. This is used for fencing, Hom. Od.. 14, 11; Il., 24, 453; Thuc., IV, 90, 2; Xenoph. An., V, 2, 21; Plut. Artaxerxes, 17, 7 (I, 1019e). Posts serve as foundations, Thuc., VII, 25, 5, cf. Philo Agric., 11, where we find the sense of "palisade." 2. The stauros is an instrument of torture for serious offences, Plut. Ser. Num. Vind., 9 (II, 554a); Artemid. Onirocr., II, 53 (p. 152, 4 ff.); Diod. S., 2, 18 (-->; III, 411., n.4). In shape we find three basic forms. The cross was a vertical, pointed stake (skolops). -->; 409, 4 ff.), or it consisted of an upright with a cross-beam above it (T, crux commissa), or it consisted of two intersecting beams of equal length (+ crux immissa). ..." (Kittel, G. & Friedrich, G., 1971, eds., "Theological Dictionary of the New Testament: Volume VII," Bromiley, G.W., transl., Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, pp.572-573. My transliteration).

"The present writer made a few experiments with exercises in modern English, but these were not very successful, and it was the discovery of the companion book in this series, Teach Yourself Greek, which brought a great hope that something similar might be done for New Testament Greek. The Classical book was useless after the first few lessons because of its completely different vocabulary, and because Hellenistic Greek has many peculiarities of its own, but a very sincere debt of gratitude must be recorded to the earlier book, which has provided the basic method of the present one, and also quite a number of illustrations. " (Hudson, D.F., 1960, "Teach Yourself New Testament Greek," English Universities Press: London, Reprinted, 1967, p.v).

"stauros, ou, o, the cross (Hom. + in the sense `upright, pointed stake' or `pale') in our lit. of the instrument by which the capital punishment of crucifixion was carried out (Diod. S. 2, 18; Plut. et al.; Philo, In Flacc. 84; Jos., Ant. 11, 261; 266f. S. also CSchneider, TW III 414, 4 and JJCollins, The Archeology of the Crucifixion, CBQ 1, '39, 154-9), a stake sunk into the earth in an upright position; a cross-piece was oft. (Artem. 2, 53) attached to its upper part, so that it was shaped like a T or thus †. 1. lit., w. other means of execution (Diogenes, Ep. 28, 3) I Ro 5:3; Hw 3, 2, 1. Used in the case of Jesus Mt 27:40, 42; Mk 15:30, 32; J 19:25, 31; Phil 2:8; GP 4:11; 10:39, 42. upomenein staurou submit to the cross Hb 12:2. The condemned man himself carried his cross to the place of execution (Plut., Mor. 554A ekastos kakourgon ekpherei ton autou stauron; Charito 4, 2, 7 ekastos t. stauron ephere; Artem. 2, 56.-Pauly-W. IV 1731) J 19:17; in the synoptics Simon of Cyrene was made to carry the cross for Jesus (Simon 4) Mt 27:32; Mk 15:21; Lk 23:26. An inscription on the cross indicated the reason for the execution J 19:19 (s. titlos). ... B seeks to show in several passages that ace. to the scriptures it was necessary for the Messiah to die on the cross: 8:1 (the xulon that plays a part in connection w. the red heifer, Num 19:6, is o tupos o tou staurou; 9:8 (in the case of the 318 servants of Abraham Gen 14:14 the number 300 represented by the numerical value of the letter T) points to the cross; cf. Lucian, Jud. Voc. 12: the letter tau has the form of the stauros); 11:1, 8a (the xulon Ps 1:3); 12:1 (scripture quot. of uncertain origin).-WWoodSeymour, The Cross in Tradition, History and Art '98 (here, p. xx-xxx, lit.); HFulda, D. Kreuz u. d. Kreuzigung 79; VSchultze, RE XI 90ff; HFHitzig, Pauly-W. IV '01, 1728-31; PW-Schmidt, Die Geschichte Jesu II '04, 386ff; 409ff; UHolzmeister, Crux Domini '34; G.Wiencke, Pls uber Jesu Tod '39; HWSchmidt, D. Kreuz Christi bei Paulus: ZaystTh 21,'50,145-59. M.M. B. 902f." (Arndt, W.F. & Gingrich, F.W., 1957, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian literature," University of Chicago Press: Chicago IL, Fourth editionW, 1952, Revised, p.772. My transliteration).

"The death of the perfect man Jesus would, in any manner inflicted, meet the requirements of the law, because death was the penalty inflicted upon Adam. Why, then, was Jesus crucified? Jesus was crucified, not on a cross of wood, such as is exhibited in many images and pictures, and which images are made and exhibited by men; Jesus was crucified by nailing his body to a tree. His being put to death in this manner symbolically said: `This man is cursed of God.' Dying as a sinner was an ignominious death, and being crucified upon a tree in effect said: `The one here dying is put to death as a vile sinner.' Such was a provision that Gad had made in his law. (Deuteronomy 21:22, 23) The curse of God was upon Adam because of Adam's willful sin. To become the ransomer or redeemer Jesus must die as though he were accursed of God, a vile sinner, yet without sin in fact; and for this reason Jehovah suffered his Beloved Son to be put to death by nailing him to a tree. `Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree.' (Galatians 3:13) `The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree. ` - Acts 5:30. The crucifixion of Jesus upon a tree is a testimony to all creation that he willingly suffered the most ignominious death in order that he might prove himself entirely obedient to the will of God under the most adverse conditions and thereby meet all the requirements of God's law as pertains to a sinful man." (Rutherford, J.F., 1936, "Riches," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, Brooklyn NY, p.27).

"stauros, -ou, o, l. an upright pale or stake (Hom., Hdt., Thuc., al.). 2. In late writers (Diod., Plut., al.) of the Roman instrument of crucifixion, the Cross: of the Cross on which Christ suffered, Mt 27:32, 40, 42, Mk 15:21, 30, 32, Lk 23:26, Jo 19:17, 19, 25, 31, Col 2:14, He 12:2; thanatos staurou, Phl 2:8; t. aima tou s.., Col 1:20. Metaph., in proverbial sayings: airein (lambanein, bastaizein) ton s., Mt 10:38; 16:24, Mk 8:34 10:21 15:21, Lk 9:23 14:27 (for an interesting ex. of metaph, use in p., v. MM, xxiii). By meton., for Christ's death on the Cross: I Co 1:17, Ga 5:11; 6:12, 14, Eph 2:16, Phl 3:18; o logos o tou s., I Col 1:18. ... stauroo, -o (< stauropos), [in LXX : Es 7:9 (`ets) 1. to fence wath pales, impalisade (Thuc.). 2. In late writers (Polyb., F1J; but anastauroo is more common) to crucify : c. ace. pers., Mt 20:19; 23:34; 26:2; 27:22 ff. 28:5; Mk 15:13 ff. 16:6, Lk 23:21; 23, 33; 24:7, 20; Jo 19:6 ff., Ac 2:36; 4:10; I Co 1:13, 23; 2:2, 8; II Co 13:4, Ga 3:1, Re 11:8; metaph., Ga 5:24; 6:14." (Abbott-Smith, G., 1937, "A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament," [1921], T. & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Third edition, Reprinted, 1956, pp.415-416. My transliteration).

"In the eyes of the Jews a man was a sinner and accursed in the sight of God if he died upon the cross, because it was written in the law: `Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree.' (Deuteronomy 21:23; Galatians 3:13) ... Suffering opposition from sinners, the representatives of the enemy, pictured as outside the camp, was the great cross of suffering which was actually fulfilled and completed when Jesus was crucified as a sinner. The things which Jesus suffered therefore were these, to wit: the reproach cast upon his Father's name; the reproach of himself because of his faithful service to his Father; the contradiction of himself by sinners; and being denounced as a sinner and then dying as a sinner upon the cross." (Rutherford, J.F., 1927, "Creation," International Bible Students Association: Brooklyn NY, pp.246-247).

"stauros, -ou, o, [fr. istemi (root sta) ; cf. Lat. stauro, Eng. staff (see Skeat, Etym. Dict. s. v.); Curtius § 216; Vanicek p.1126]; 1. an upright stake, esp. a pointed one, (Hom., Hdt., Thuc., Xen.). 2. a cross; a. the well-known instrument of most cruel and ignominious punishment, borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians; to it were affixed among the Romans, down to the time of Constantine the Great, the guiltiest criminals, particularly the basest slaves, robbers, the authors and abetters of insurrections, and occasionally in the provinces, at the arbitrary pleasure of the governors, upright and peaceable men also, and even Roman citizens themselves; cf. Win. RWB. s. v. Kreuzigung; Merz in Herzog ed. 1 [(cf. Schaff-Herzog) also Schultze in Herzog ed. 2], s. v. Kreuz ; Keim iii. p. 409 sqq. [Eng. trans. vi. 138; BB.DD. s. vv. Cross, Crucifixion O. Zockler, Das Kreuz Christi (G├╝tersloh, 1875) ; Eng. trans. Lond. 1878; Fulda, Das Kreuz u. d. Kreuzigung (Bresl. 1878); Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, ii. 582 sqq.], This horrible punishment the innocent Jesus also suffered: Mt. xxvii. 32, 40, 42; Mk. xv. 21, 30, 32 ; Lk. xxiii. 26; Jn. xix. 17, 19, 25, 31 ; Col. ii. 14; Heb. xii. 2 ; thanatos stautou, Phil. ii. 8 ; to aima tou stautou, blood shed on the cross., Col. i. 20. b. i. q. the crucifixion which Christ underwent: Gal. v. 11 (on which see skandalon, sub fin.) ; Eph. ii. 16 ; with the addition of tou Christou, 1 Co. i. 17; the saving power of his crucifixion, Phil. iii. 18 (on which see echthros, fin.) ; Gal. vi. 14; to stauro tou Christou diokesthai, to encounter persecution on account of one's avowed belief in the saving efficacy of Christ's crucifixion, Gal. vi. 12; o logos o tou staurou the doctrine concerning the saving power of the death on the cross endured by Christ, 1 Co. i. 18. The judicial usage which compelled those condemned to crucifixion themselves to carry the cross to the place of punishment (Plut. de sera numinis vindict. c. 9; Artem. oneir. 2, 56, cf. Jn. xix. 17), gave rise to the proverbial expression airein or lambanein or bastazein ton stauron autou, which was wont to be used of those who on behalf of God's cause do not hesitate cheerfully and manfully to bear persecutions, troubles, distresses,-thus recalling the fate of Christ and the spirit in which he encountered it (cf. Bleek, Synop. Erkl. der drei ersten Evangg. i. p. 439 sq.) : Mt. x. 38; xvi. 24 ; Mk. viii. 34; x. 21 [R L in br.] ; xv. 21 ; Lk. ix. 23; xiv. 27." (Thayer, J.H., 1901, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Being Grimm's Wilke's Clovis Novi Testamenti Translated Revised and Enlarged," T & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Fourth edition, Reprinted, 1961, p.586. My transliteration).

"stauros, o, upright pale or stake, staurous ektos elasse diamperes entha kai entha puknous kai thameos Od. 14.11, cf. Il. 24.4.53, Th.. 4.90, X., An. 5.2.21; of piles driven in to serve as a foundation, Hdt. 5.16,. Th. 7.25. II. cross, as the instrument of crucifixion, D.S. 2.18, Eu. Matt. 27.40, Plu. 2.554a; epi ton s. apagesthai Luc. Peregr. 34; s. lambanein, aria, bastazein, metaph, of voluntary suffering, Eu. Matt. 10.38, Eu. Luc. 9.23, 14.27: its form was represented by the Greek letter T, Luc. Jud. Voc. 12, b., pale for impaling a corpse, Plu. Art. 17. ... staur-oo, (stauros) fence with pales, Th. 7.25; s. ta bathe xulois D.S. 24.1: - Pass., Th. 6.100. II. crucify, PIb. 1.86.4, Eu. Matt. 20.19, Critodem. in Cat. Cod. Astr. 8(4), 200: metaph., s. ton sarka crucify it, destroy its power, Ep. Gal. 5.24. cf. 6.14: elos estauramenos nail from a cross, as amulet, Asclep. Jun. ap. Alex. Trall. I.15. -oma, atos, to, palisade or stockade, Th. 5.10, 6.64, 74, X. HG 3.2.3, etc. -simos, on, deserving crucifixion, Hsch. s.v. skoloponumon. -osis, eos, e, stockade, Th. 7.25." (Liddell, H.G., Scott, R. & Jones, H.S., 1883, "A Greek-English Lexicon," Clarendon Press: Oxford, Seventh edition, p.1635. My transliteration).

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