my morning "quiet time" Bible study, with this part #12, Jesus is Jehovah in Ephesians!
I have started using the English Standard Version (ESV) because it is more literal than the New International Version (NIV) and more modern than the American Standard Version (ASV).
I am actually up to "Jesus is Jehovah in Revelation!" in my morning Bible study, and when I have reached the end of that book, in a week or so, I will have completed that program of Bible study begun on 15 January 2008.
So I will probably begin a new program of Bible study, that of "Jesus is Jehovah! by topic," similar to those topics in my 2007 CED blog post, "Jesus is Jehovah!" In that case I may cease (at least for a while) posting this "Jesus is Jehovah in the New Testament" series and start a new "Jesus is Jehovah! by topic" series, e.g. "Jesus claimed to be Jehovah."
2. JESUS HAS NAMES AND TITLES OF JEHOVAH
Name. Jesus' name (which means "Jehovah is salvation"-Mt 1:21) is now exalted "far above ... every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come":
"With astonishing frequency-far more often than even many scholars have noticed-Jesus is identified as the Lord (that is, YHWH) of the Old Testament (Rom. 10:9-13; 1 Cor. 8:6; Phil. 2:9-11; 1 Peter 3:13-15). He is the King of kings and Lord of lords (Rev. 17:14; 19:16), the divine Savior (Titus 2:13; 2 Peter 1:11), the one who says `I am' or `I am he' (John 8:24, 28, 58), the first and the last, the Alpha and the Omega, and the beginning and the end (Rev. 1:7-8, 17b-18; 2:8; 22:12-13). The New Testament repeatedly and in a variety of ways makes the name of Jesus the center of Christian faith; he has the name that is above every name (Eph. 1:21; Phil. 2:9-11; Col. 3:17)." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., 2007, "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, pp..272-273).
Christians were "justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ" (1Cor 6:11); "baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus" (Acts 8:16; 19:5); "assembled in the name of the Lord Jesus" (1Cor 5:4); and were to "do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus" (Col 3:17). Christians are to be "giving thanks always and for everything to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Eph 5:20).
"Thus all of these passages reflect various ways whereby the Divine Name that belonged to God alone in ancient Israel has now been transferred across the board to the One to whom that Name has now been given in its Greek form, kurios", i.e. "the Lord Jesus" (my emphasis):
"Even though Paul does not use the metaphor `to walk' as such, he ... assumes that everything believers do is done `in the name of the Lord Jesus.' Thus, in Col 3:17 ... Paul urges the believers in Colossae ... to do everything, whether word or deed, `in the name of the Lord Jesus.' Thus what identifies them as God's new people is also the context in which they are to live out that identification in its entirety ... In the companion passage in Eph 5:20, believers are urged especially in the context of worship to offer their thanksgiving to God `in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.' ... The point to make again, by way of conclusion, is that in every one of these instances where Paul uses the OT term `the name of the Lord,' the Divine Name is now `the Name' that was bestowed on Christ at his exaltation Thus all of these passages reflect various ways whereby the Divine Name that belonged to God alone in ancient Israel has now been transferred across the board to the One to whom that Name has now been given in its Greek form, kurios." (Fee, G.D., 2007, "Pauline Christology: An Exegetical-Theological Study," Hendrickson Publishers: Peabody MA, pp.567-568. My transliteration).
Savior. Jesus is "the saviour of the body" (Eph 5:23), i.e. the Church. Jesus is: "a Savior, who is Christ the Lord" (Lk 2:11); "the Savior of the world" (Jn 4:42; 1Jn 4:14); "God exalted him at his right hand as ... Savior" (Acts 5:31); "God has brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus" (Acts 13:23); "a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ" (Php 3:20); "our Savior Christ Jesus" (2Tim 1:10); "Christ Jesus our Savior." (Tit 1:4); "Jesus Christ our Savior" (Tit 3:6). Indeed, Jesus is: "our great God and Savior Jesus Christ" (Tit 2:13); "our God and Savior Jesus Christ" (2Pet 1:1); "our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ" (2Pet 1:11; 2:20; 3:18). Yet Jehovah is the only Saviour: "I, am Jehovah; and besides me there is no saviour." (Isa 43:11; Hos 13:4 ASV); "I, Jehovah ... a just God and a Saviour; there is none besides me. (Isa 45:21 ASV); "all flesh shall know that I, Jehovah, am thy Saviour" (Isa 49:26; 60:16).
"one Lord, one faith, one baptism." (my emphasis).
The NWT did not mistranslate the Gk. kurios by "Jehovah" here, so presumably the Watchtower admits that our "one Lord" is Jesus (as is clear from the context). But just in case a JW (or even the Watchtower) might try to claim that the "one Lord" is not Jesus but Jehovah, then the NWT of Jude 4 clearly states that "our only Owner and Lord" is "Jesus Christ":
"My reason is that certain men have slipped in who have long ago been appointed by the Scriptures to this judgment, ungodly men, turning the undeserved kindness of our God into an excuse for loose conduct and proving false to our only Owner and Lord, Jesus Christ."
As does 1Cor 8:6 NWT correctly state that, "there is one Lord, Jesus Christ":
"there is actually to us one God the Father, out of whom all things are, and we for him; and there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things are, and we through him."
But then the Watchtower has a problem, because: 1) If Jesus is our "only Lord," and "there is one Lord"; 2) but Jesus is not Jehovah; then 3) Jehovah cannot be Lord. Only if Jesus is Jehovah, can Jesus and Jehovah be our "only Lord"!
The fact is that, by "There is one Lord' (eis Kurios) [Eph 4:5]" is the same words in the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint of Zec 14:9, "And the LORD [Kurios] shall be king over all the earth. In that day shall there be one Lord [Kurios eis]..." (KJV). So "here the apostle ... adopting the very words of the ... Septuagint, applies them to Jesus Christ. ... [an] explicit declaration that he is the Eternal Jehovah":
"And here may be the most convenient place to introduce a few remarks on the witness we derive from the word `Lord.' .... But what of those very numerous instances in which it is applied to Jesus Christ? Therein he is described as `Lord of all:' [Acts 10:36] ... The collation of two passages from the Old, with two passages from the New Testament, seems to clinch the argument: `Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God is one LORD' (Kurios ho Theos emon, Kurios eis esti - LXX) [Dt 6:4]. `There is one Lord' (eis Kurios) [Eph 4:5]. `And the LORD shall be king over all the earth. In that day shall there be one Lord, and his name One (Kurios eis kaito onoma autou en-LXX) [Zec 14:9]. `To us...... there is...... one Lord (eis Kurios) Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.' [1Cor 8:6]. Here the apostle uses the very words to which the Jews clung with such tenacity as establishing the fundamental truth of the Unity of God; and adopting the very words of the common version, the Septuagint, applies them to Jesus Christ. There appears, therefore, in this name of Christ, as used in the New Testament, explicit declaration that he is the Eternal Jehovah." (Bickersteth, E.H., 1957, "The Trinity ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, Third Printing, 1965, pp.75-76).
Master (Lord). Jesus is our "Master [ho kurios] ... in heaven" (Eph 6:9).
Second Person of the Trinity. The three Persons of the Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit, are mentioned together in at least four passages in Ephesians (my emphasis below):
Eph 2:18. "For through him [Christ] we both have access in one Spirit to the Father. "
Eph 2:22. "In him [Christ] you also are being built together into a dwelling place for God by the Spirit."
Eph 3:14-17. "For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named, that according to the riches of his glory he may grant you to be strengthened with power through his Spirit in your inner being, so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith-that you, being rooted and grounded in love,"
Eph 4:4-6. "There is one body and one Spirit-just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call- one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all."
"In Paul's letter to the Ephesians, within a brief compass he refers to the Trinity no fewer than four times":
"In Paul's letter to the Ephesians, within a brief compass he refers to the Trinity no fewer than four- times. The first mention describes the trinitarian nature of our approach to God: `For through Him (Christ) we both (Jew and Gentile) have access by one Spirit to the Father'. The word for `access' is that used of bringing a subject into the presence of his king, or as we would say `to have audience of' (Ephesians 2:18). The second reference describes the collaboration of the `Trinity' in our edification (Ephesians 2:22) `In whom (Jesus Christ, the chief corner stone, verse 20) you are builded together for a habitation of God through the Spirit.' Again the same pattern: In whom-Christ; to whom-God; through whom-the Spirit. The third passage is Ephesians 3:14-17, `For this cause I bow my knees to the Father, of whom the whole `repatriation' in heaven and on earth is named. That He would grant unto you according to the riches of His grace, that ye may be strengthened with power through His Spirit in the inner man, that Christ may come and take up His abode in your hearts by faith.' Thus for enjoyment of abiding fellowship we have the cooperation of the Father, the Holy Spirit, and Christ. Again Paul refers to the work of the Trinity in maintaining unification in His church (Ephesians 4:4-6) `One body, and one Spirit, even as you were called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all and through all and in all'. Here we have unity in tri-unity." (Bruce, F.F. & Martin, W.J., 1964, "The Deity of Christ," North of England Evangelical Trust: Manchester UK, pp.17-18).
"Paul's letter to the Ephesians ... may be one of the highest expressions of trinitarian faith in the New Testament":
"Paul's letter to the Ephesians, however, may be one of the highest expressions of trinitarian faith in the New Testament. God chose and predestined us to salvation through Jesus Christ and sealed us in the Holy Spirit (Eph. 1:3-14). On this basis Paul prays that the God of Jesus Christ may give to Christians the Spirit of wisdom and revelation (1:15-17). Of Christ he writes, `for through Him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father' (2:18 NASB) and are becoming `...a holy temple in the Lord ...a dwelling of God in the Spirit' (2:21-22 NASB). Paul again prays, this time asking the Father to strengthen us through his Spirit so that Christ may dwell in our hearts and we thereby know Christ's love fully (3:14-19). He reminds us that there is `one Spirit... one Lord... one God and Father of all' (4:4-6). We should therefore not grieve the Holy Spirit, but forgive others as God has forgiven us in Christ (4:29-32). We are to be filled with the Spirit, giving thanks to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ (5:18-20)." (Bowman, R.M., Jnr, 1989, "Why You Should Believe in the Trinity: An Answer to Jehovah's Witnesses," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Third printing, 1990, pp.130-131. Emphasis original).
For a devout, monotheistic Jewish rabbi, as Paul was, to repeatedly mention Father, Son (Christ) and the Holy Spirit together in close conjunction is inexplicable unless in Paul's mind they were each equal in Godhood.
"forgiving one another, as God in Christ forgave you"
and the NKJV has:
"forgiving one another, even as God in Christ forgave you."
These two are faithful to the original Greek which is, kathos kai ho theos en Christos. Which is, as in the Watchtower's "Kingdom Interlinear Translation" (1985) correctly translates it,
"as also the God in Christ graciously forgave you" (my emphasis).
So this verse is saying that when Christ forgave the Ephesians, it was God who forgave them.
Son of God. Jesus is "the Son of God" (Eph 4:13; Mt 4:3,6; 8:29; 14:33; 26:63-64; 27:43; Lk 1:35; 22:70; Jn 1:34,49; 5:25; 11:27; 19:7; 20:31; Acts 9:20; Rom 1:4; 2Cor 1:19; Gal 2:20; Heb 4:14; 6:6; 7:3; 10:29; 1Jn 3:8; 4:15; 5:1,5,10,12,13,20; Rev 2:18). That Jesus is the "Son of God" means that He has the same nature as God the Father:
"Jesus was ... God's Son by nature":
"First, Jesus made it clear that the Father was his God in a unique manner compared with the manner in which the Father is our God. Thus, in John 20:17 Jesus stated, `I am ascending to my Father and YOUR Father and to my God and YOUR God' (NWT). Why did Jesus not simply say, `I am ascending to our Father and our God'? In fact, Jesus never spoke of the Father as `our Father,' including himself along with his disciples. (In Matt. 6:9 Jesus told the disciples that they should pray, `Our Father...,' but did not include himself in that prayer.) Jesus was careful to distinguish the two relationships, because he was God's Son by nature, whereas Christians are God's `sons' by adoption." (Bowman, 1989, p.72).
"The fact that Jesus is called the `Son of God' proves that He has the same divine nature as the Father":
"However ... the fact that Jesus is called the `Son of God' proves that He has the same divine nature as the Father. ... Ancient Semitics and Orientals used the phrase `son of ...' to indicate likeness or sameness of nature and equality of being. Hence, when Jesus claimed to be the Son of God, His Jewish contemporaries fully understood that He was making a claim to be God in an unqualified sense. ... from the earliest days of Christianity, the phrase `Son of God' was understood to be fully equivalent to God. This is why when Jesus made His claim, the Jews insisted, `We have a law, and according to that law he [Christ] must die, because he claimed to be the Son of God' (John 19:7, insert mine). Recognizing that Jesus was identifying Himself as God, the Jews wanted to put Him to death for committing blasphemy (see Leviticus 24:16)." (Rhodes, R., 1993, "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.242-243. Emphasis original).
That is because "the phrase `son of...' meant among the ancients. ... the ... meaning `of the order of':
"Jesus: The Eternal Son of God. The notion that the title Son of God indicates inferiority to the Father is based on a faulty conception of what the phrase `son of...' meant among the ancients. Though the term can refer to `offspring of' in some contexts, it actually carries the more important meaning `of the order of.' The phrase is often used that way in the Old Testament. For example, `sons of the prophets' meant `of the order of prophets' (1 Kings 20:35). `Sons of the singers' meant `of the order of singers' (Nehemiah 12:28). Likewise, the phrase `Son of God' means `of the order of God,' and represents a claim to undiminished deity. Ancient Semitics and Orientals used the phrase `son of ...' to indicate likeness or sameness of nature and equality of being. Hence, when Jesus claimed to be the Son of God, His Jewish contemporaries fully understood that He was making a claim to be God in an unqualified sense." (Rhodes, 1993, pp.242-243. Emphasis original).
"Jesus was ... the `one and only' ... Son of God who had come from the Father .... who shared his nature ... Unique sonship implies deity":
"As elsewhere in John, the title ho uios tou theou [the Son of God], which is in apposition to ho christos [the Christ] in John 20:31, denotes more than simply the Davidic Messiah. The Gospel was written to produce belief that Jesus was the promised Jewish Messiah and that this Messiah was none other than the `one and only' [monogenes] Son of God who had come from the Father (John 11:42; 17:8), who shared his nature (John 1:1, 18; 10:30) and fellowship (John 1:18; 14:11), and who therefore might appropriately be addressed and worshiped as ho theos mou [my God, lit. the God of me]. Unique sonship implies deity (John 5:18; cf. 19:7)." (Harris, M.J., 1992, "Jesus As God: The New Testament Use of Theos in Reference to Jesus," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted, 1998, pp.124-125. Translations and transliterations mine).
"The designation `Son of God' ... was equivalent simply to equal with God'":
"The other designation-'the Son of God'-which Paul prefixes to this in his fundamental declaration concerning the Christ that he preached, supplies the basis for this. It does not tell us what Christ is to us, but what Christ is in Himself. In Himself He is the Son of God; and it is only because He is the Son of God in Himself, that He can be and is our Lord. The Lordship of Christ is rooted by Paul, in other words, not in any adventitious circumstances connected with His historical manifestation; not in any powers or dignities conferred on Him or acquired by Him; but fundamentally in His metaphysical nature. The designation `Son of God' is a metaphysical designation and tells us what He is in His being of being. And what it tells us that Christ is in His being of being is that He is just what God is. It is undeniable ... that, from the earliest days of Christianity on, (in Bousset's [Bousset, D.W., 1913, Kyrios Christos] words) `Son of God was equivalent simply to equal with God' (Mark xiv. 61-63; John x. 31-39)." (Warfield, B.B., 1970, "The Person and Work of Christ," Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing Co: Philadelphia PA, p.77).
"By the unique relationship which he [Jesus] was declaring existed between himself and `the Father,' he was making himself "equal ... with God":
"But perhaps his most emphatic claim to equality with the Father comes in 5:23 when he makes one's honoring of `the Father' turn on the issue of whether one honors `the Son,' that is, Jesus himself. With these words Jesus laid claim to the right to demand, equally with the Father, the honor (that is, the devotion and worship) of men! Is it any wonder, given the assumption of the religious leaders concerning him (that is, that he was only a man) that they thought him, under Jewish law (see Lev 24:16), to be worthy of death? By the unique relationship which he was declaring existed between himself and "the Father," he was making himself "equal [ison] with God" (5:18)." (Reymond, R.L., 2003, "Jesus, Divine Messiah: The New Testament and Old Testament Witness," Mentor: Fearn UK, p.230).
The "Jewish religious leadership correctly perceived that" Jesus "was claiming a Sonship with God of such a nature that it constituted .... equality with God":
"Jesus claimed by his `Son' sayings essential divine oneness with God in the Synoptic Gospels in Matthew 11:27 (Luke 10:22); 21:37-38 (Mark 12:6; Luke 20:13); 24:36 (Mark 13:32); and 28:19; and in the Gospel of John in (at least) 5:1 7-29; 6:40; 10:36; 11:4; 14:13; 17:1. To these must be added those instances in the Fourth Gospel when he claimed that God was his Father in such a unique sense that the Jewish religious leadership correctly perceived that he was claiming a Sonship with God of such a nature that it constituted essential divine oneness and equality with God and thus, from their perspective, was the committing of blasphemy deserving death (John 5:17-18; 10:24-39, especially verses 25, 29, 30, 32-33; 37, 38; see also 19:7)." (Reymond, 2003, pp.202-203).
"This is why, when Jesus claimed to be the Son of God, the Jews insisted, `We have a law, and according to that law he must die, because he claimed to be the Son of God'":
"Warfield affirms that, from the earliest days of Christianity, the phrase `Son of God' was understood to be fully equivalent to God. [Warfield, B.B., 1950, "The Person and Work of Christ,"p.77] This is why, when Jesus claimed to be the Son of God, the Jews insisted, `We have a law, and according to that law he [Christ] must die, because he claimed to be the Son of God' (John 19:7). Recognizing that Jesus was identifying Himself as God, the Jews wanted to put Him to death for committing blasphemy (see Leviticus 24:16)." (Rhodes, 1993, pp.242-243).
But the only grounds in the Law for executing a blasphemer is in Leviticus 24:16, where "anyone who blasphemes the name of the LORD must be put to death":
Lev 24:16. anyone WHO BLASPHEMES THE NAME OF THE LORD MUST BE PUT TO DEATH. The entire assembly must stone him. Whether an alien or native-born, when HE BLASPHEMES THE NAME, HE MUST BE PUT TO DEATH.
Jesus "at his trial ... when he acknowledged that he was the `Son of God' ... his judges accused him of blasphemy worthy of death ... the basis of which judgment Jesus made no attempt to repudiate":
"More can be said-a great deal more-in favor of Jesus' claim, as the Messiah, to deity. ... he claimed as well to be the Son of God, not in an ethico-religious, in an official or functional, or in a nativistic sense of the title, but in what the church would later come to describe as the Sonship of the intra-trinitarian relation denoting essential oneness and sameness with the Father. This was clearly the case at his trial, for when he acknowledged that he was the `Son of God' (or `Son of the Blessed'), his judges accused him of blasphemy worthy of death (Matt 26:65-68; Mark 14:63-64; Luke 22:71), the basis of which judgment Jesus made no attempt to repudiate." (Reymond, 2003, p.202).
"Jesus' opponents here state explicitly that, by `blasphemy,' they mean that Jesus is in some way claiming to be God ":
"In John's Gospel, opponents of Jesus threatened to stone him for blasphemy, explaining, `Because you, though only a human being, are making yourself God' (John 10:33). In this instance, Jesus' opponents here state explicitly that, by `blasphemy,' they mean that Jesus is in some way claiming to be God. In context, Jesus has just claimed to do his works in the name of the Father (v. 25), to be the Shepherd of the sheep (vv. 26-27), to give eternal life to them (v. 28), and to prevent anyone from snatching them out of his hand, just as the Father does (vv. 28-29; cf. Deut. 32:39). He then concludes that, in asserting these divine prerogatives, he is claiming, `The Father and I are one' (John 10:30). It is not hard to see how Jesus' opponents drew the conclusion they did. Clearly, they understood Jesus to be claiming to do things that only God' can do." (Bowman & Komoszewski, 2007, p.239).
"Thus ... when the Jews say Jesus claimed to be `the Son of God,' they ... mean that Jesus claimed to be ... God's `Son' in a sense that made him ... on a par with God " which is why "they regarded his claim to be God's Son ... to be blasphemy":
"John reports that when Pilate told the Sanhedrin that he had no grounds to crucify Jesus, they replied, `We have a law, and according to that law he ought to die because he has claimed to be the Son of God' (John 19:7). This statement recalls both John 5:17-18-where Jesus' claim to work on the Sabbath just as his Father implies a claim to be uniquely God's divine Son-and John 10:28-33, where Jesus' statement that he and the Father are one provoked an explicit accusation of blasphemy. Thus, in John 19:7, when the Jews say Jesus claimed to be `the Son of God,' they clearly mean that Jesus claimed to be divine, God's `Son' in a sense that made him functionally on a par with God. In short, their reason for wanting Jesus dead remained consistent from John 5 through John 8 and 10 all the way to John 19: they regarded his claim to be God's Son-uniquely like him in his prerogatives, attributes, and works-to be blasphemy." (Bowman, 2007, p.240).
Eph 4:8 "Therefore it says, `When he [Christ] ascended on high he led a host of captives, and he gave gifts to men.'"
Ps 68:18 "You [Jehovah] ascended on high, leading a host of captives in your train and receiving gifts among men,."
This is so, even in the Watchtower's own New World Translation:
Ps 68:18 NWT. You [Jehovah] have ascended on high; You have carried away captives; You have taken gifts in the form of men, Yes, even the stubborn ones, to reside [among them], O Jah God.
Eph 4:8 NWT. Wherefore he says: "When he [Christ] ascended on high he carried away captives; he gave gifts [in] men."
"In the first passage, Christ is the focus; in the second, the LORD (Jehovah) God. There is no conflict; Jesus is the LORD (Jehovah) God""
"EPHESIANS 4:7-8: But to each one of us grace has been given as Christ apportioned it. This is why it says: `When he ascended on high, he led captives in his train and gave gifts to men.' Psalm 68:18 reads, `When you ascended on high, you led captives in your train; you received gifts from 'men, even from the rebellious--that you, O LORD God, might dwell there.' In the first passage, Christ is the focus; in the second, the LORD (Jehovah) God. There is no conflict; Jesus is the LORD (Jehovah) God." (Humber, P.G., 1997, "Jehovah Jesus: A Reference Handbook and Study Guide on the Deity of the Lord Jesus Christ," Skilton House Ministries: Philadelphia PA, p.73. Emphasis original).
This is but one of many examples where "Paul ... applied Old Testament passages in which God (Yahweh) is the subject directly to Jesus":
Jesus as `the Lord' ...Paul ... applied Old Testament passages in which God (Yahweh) is the subject directly to Jesus (see Isa 8:14 and Rom 9:32, 33; Joel 2:32 and Rom 10:12-13; Isa 40:13 and 1 Cor 2:16; Ps 24:1 [LXX, 23: l ] and 1 Cor 10:26 [see 10:21-22]; Ps 68:18 and Eph 4:8-10; Isa 45:23 and Phil 2:10), there can be no legitimate doubt that as `the Lord,' Jesus was, for Paul, divine and rightly to be regarded by others as such." (Reymond, 2003, p.428).
"On several occasions NT writers apply OT passages concerning Yahweh directly to Jesus":
"JESUS' IDENTITY WITH YAHWEH/JEHOVAH The NT attributes to Jesus many of the perfections of Yahweh (or, Jehovah), the creator/redeemer God of the OT. ... On several occasions NT writers apply OT passages concerning Yahweh directly to Jesus (Acts 2:34f.; Rom. 8:34; Heb. 10:12f.; 1 Pet. 3:22 apply Ps. 110:1. Rom. 10:13 applies Joel 2:32. Phil. 2:9-11 applies Is. 45:23. Jn. 12:41 applies Is. 6:10. Eph. 4:8 applies Ps. 68:18). These passages clearly identify Jesus with Yahweh." (Milne, B., 1982, "Know the Truth: A Handbook of Christian Belief," Inter-Varsity Press: Leicester UK, Fifth printing, 1988, p.129. Emphasis original).
"Things that are in the Old Testament said of Jehovah are in the New Testament said of Christ":
"The doctrine of the deity of Christ is crucial to the Christian faith. .... It can be demonstrated that he is God in several ways.... His identification with the Old Testament Jehovah. Things that are in the Old Testament said of Jehovah are in the New Testament said of Christ. He was the creator (Ps. 102:24-27; Heb. 1:10-12), was seen by Isaiah (Isa. 6:1-4; John 12:41), was to be preceded by a forerunner (Isa. 40:3; Matt. 3:3), disciplines his people (Num. 21:6f.; 1 Cor. 10:9), is to be regarded as holy (Isa. 8:13; 1 Pet. 3:15), is to lead captivity captive (Ps. 68:18; Eph. 4:8), and is to be the object of faith (Joel 2:32; Rom. 10:9, 13)." (Thiessen, H.C. & Doerksen, V.D., 1979, "Lectures in Systematic Theology," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, Revised, pp.92-93. My emphasis).
"In the New Testament, there are passages in which what is said in the Old Testament concerning Jehovah is applied to Jesus Christ":
"In the New Testament, there are passages in which what is said in the Old Testament concerning Jehovah is applied to Jesus Christ. Compare Numbers 14:2; 21:5, 6; Ps. 95:9, with 1 Cor. 10:9. Here the tempting of Jehovah is the tempting of Christ. ... In Heb. 1:10, 11, what is attributed to Jehovah in Ps. 102:26, is attributed to Christ. In John 12:40, 41, it is asserted that the language of Isaiah (6:9, 10) concerning Jehovah refers to Jesus Christ. Isa. 45:23, compared with Rom. 14:10, 11 ... shows that the judgment-seat of God is the judgment-seat of Christ. ... Joel 2:32 compared with Rom. 10:13, proves that the name of Jehovah is the name of Christ. In Eph. 4:8, 9, Christ gives the gifts that in Ps. 68:18 are given by Jehovah." (Shedd, W.G.T., 1888, "Dogmatic Theology," Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted, 1969, Vol. I, p.315).
"Old Testament descriptions of God [Jehovah] are applied to him [Jesus]":
"Old Testament descriptions of God are applied to him. This application to Christ of titles and names exclusively appropriated to God is inexplicable, if Christ was not regarded as being himself God. The peculiar awe with which the term 'Jehovah' was set apart by a nation of strenuous monotheists as the sacred and incommunicable name of the one self-existent and covenant-keeping God forbids the belief that the Scripture writers could have used it as the designation of a subordinate and created being. Mat. 3:3 = `Make ye ready the way of the Lord'-is a quotation from Is. 40:3 = `Prepare ye ... the way of Jehovah.' John 12:41 = `These things said Isaiah, because he saw his glory; and he spake of him' [i. e., Christ] - refers to Is. 6:1 - `In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne;' So in Eph. 4:7, 8 - `measure of the gift of Christ ... led captivity captive `-is an application to Christ of what is said of Jehovah in Ps. 68:18. In 1 Pet. 3:15, moreover, we read ... `sanctify in your hearts Christ as Lord'; here the apostle borrows his language from Is. 8:13, where we read: `Jehovah of hosts, him shall ye sanctify.' " (Strong, A.H., 1907, "Systematic Theology," Judson Press: Valley Forge PA, Twenty-fifth printing, 1967, p.309).
All things in subjection to. God the Father has "put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things to the church" (Eph 1:22).
Above all. Jesus is now exalted, "far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come." (Eph 1:21). But "Such was always his place in the universe because he is eternally God the Son (Jn. 3:31)":
"[Eph 1:21] Now the thought of the resurrection and exaltation of Christ leads rather to the declaration of him as Lord of all. His position is far above all rule and authority and power and dominion. Such was always his place in the universe because he is eternally God the Son (Jn. 3:31). To it he was exalted again after he had humbled himself to assume our humanity (Eph. 4:10)." (Foulkes, F., 1989, "The Letter of Paul to the Ephesians," The Tyndale New Testament commentaries, [1963 ], InterVarsity Press: Leicester UK, Second edition, Reprinted, 1991, p.72).
Almighty. The Greek word translated "almighty" is pantokrator which means "all-ruling" (Strong's Concordance):
3841. pantokrator, ...; from G3956 and G2904; the all-ruling, i.e. God (as absolute and universal sovereign):--Almighty, Omnipotent.
And Jesus is now all-ruling. He is now "seated at" the Father's "right hand in the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come." (Eph 1:20-21).
"Paul on occasions exploits language to its maximal limit to find terms in which to describe the absolute exaltation of Christ":
"Paul on occasions exploits language to its maximal limit to find terms in which to describe the absolute exaltation of Christ. To the believers in Rome he writes: `From whom (the Jewish nation) as concerning the flesh is Christ, who is over all, God blessed for ever' (Romans 9:5). When speaking to the Corinthian converts about the Cross as the focal point of their salvation, he goes on to say: `To us there is one God: the Father, of whom are all things, and we unto Him, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through Him' (1 Corinthians 8:6). To the Ephesians, he asserts: `(He is set) far above all hierarchy, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come' (Ephesians 1:21). To the Colossian Christians he says: `In Him dwells the fulness of the deity bodily' (Colossians 2:9). Even in his short letter to Titus he must mention it: `Expecting the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and the Saviour Jesus Christ' (Titus 2:13)." (Bruce, F.F. & Martin, W.J., 1964, "The Deity of Christ," North of England Evangelical Trust: Manchester UK, p.19).
Omnipresent. The entire Church is "in the Lord" (Eph 2:21). Christ dwells in the hearts of all Christians (Eph 3:17; Rom 8:10; Col 3:17). Jesus now "fills all in all" (Eph 1:23); He "fill[s] all things" (Eph 4:10), that is He is omnipresent, as is Jehovah (1Ki 8:27; Ps 139:7-10; Jer 23:24; Acts 17:27):
"EPHESIANS 4:10: He who descended is the very one who ascended higher than all the heavens, in order to fill the whole universe. The Lord Jesus is the One who is to `fill the whole universe,' but so does Jehovah God. Jeremiah 23:24 reads, `Can anyone hide in secret places so that I cannot see him?' declares the LORD. `Do not I fill heaven and earth?' declares the LORD.' Can there be room for both the Lord Jesus and Jehovah God? The Lord Jesus Christ is Jehovah God. There is no conflict." (Humber, 1997, p.73).
"The Bible also names specific attributes unique to God that are possessed by Christ. He is ...omnipresent":
"The Bible also names specific attributes unique to God that are possessed by Christ. He is self-existent (John 5:26); unchanging (Heb. 1:10-12; 13:8); eternal (John 1:1-2; 8:58; 17:5; Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:2, 12), omnipresent, an attribute that JWs deny even to God ( Matt 18:20; 28:20; Eph. 1:23; 4:10; Col. 3:11); and beyond human comprehension (Matt. 11:25-27). This last point bears emphasizing. The biblical teaching that Jesus Christ is Jehovah, the Lord of all, God in the flesh, is found throughout the New Testament," (Bowman, 1989, p.110).
"Just as God is omnipresent in a personal sense ... so the New Testament describes Christ also as omnipresent":
"Jesus Christ Possesses the Attributes of God Omnipresence God is `in' everything; all of God is everywhere present at each point in the universe. That is what being omnipresent means. ... Just as God is omnipresent in a personal sense (Psalm 139:7; Proverbs 15:3), and thus is able to help, deliver, love, defend, and meet His people's deepest longings and needs, so the New Testament describes Christ also as omnipresent. Paul said that `He who descended is Himself also He who ascended far above all the heavens, that He might fill all things' (Ephesians 4:10). Christ told His disciples, `For where two or three have gathered together in My Name, there I am in their midst' (Matthew 18:20). He told them, `Lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age' (Matthew 28:20). Christ is said to indwell the hearts of all who place their faith in Him (Romans 8:9, Galatians 2:20, Ephesians 3:17, Colossians 1:27, Revelation 3:20). `... do you not recognize this about yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you?' (2 Corinthians 13:5 ). How could a mere mortal, glorified or not, claim to indwell the hearts of believers around the world?" (McDowell, J. & Larson, B., 1975, "Jesus: A Biblical Defense of his Deity," Here's Life Publishers: San Bernardino CA, pp.51-52. Emphasis original).
Omnipotent. Each individual Christian is to "be strong in the Lord, and in the strength of his might." (Eph 6:10).
5. JESUS DOES WORKS OF JEHOVAH
Grace, peace and love. Jesus is with the Father the bestower of grace and peace (Eph 1:2; 6:23-24. Cf. Rom 1:7; 16:20; 1Cor 1:3; 2Cor 1:2; Gal 1:3; Php 1:2; 2Th 1:2; 1Tim 1:2; 2Tim 1:2; Tit 1:4; Phm 1:3; 2Pet 1:2; 2Jn 1:3).
"We conclude then that 2 Peter 1:1 takes its place alongside John 20:28, Romans 9:5, and Titus 2:13 as a fourth verse in which Jesus is described as being God by the Christological title of ... theos. While Peter's Christology in 2 Peter is not as full with respect to detail as in his first letter it is still the same high Christology `from above' which we observed there. That Jesus is God incarnate is attested, as we have just argued, by Peter's description of him as `our God' (1:1) and by his being, with the Father, the co-source of grace and peace (1:2)." (Reymond, 2003, p.492).
"... when Paul was writing a letter it was his habit to associate the Lord Jesus with the Father in his opening prayer ... This is very revealing. It shows us that Paul held the highest possible view of the Person of Christ. In the first place, only on this basis could he have bracketed the Son with the Father":
"The interesting thing for our present purpose is that when Paul was writing a letter it was his habit to associate the Lord Jesus with the Father in his opening prayer. `Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ' (Rom. 1:7), he wrote to the Christians at Rome, and a similar expression is found at the head of every one of his letters that has been preserved. This is very revealing. It shows us that Paul held the highest possible view of the Person of Christ. In the first place, only on this basis could he have bracketed the Son with the Father. In the second, he looks to Christ as the source of that grace and peace which he longs to be made available to his correspondents, wherever they might be." (Morris, L.L., 1974, "The Lord from Heaven," Inter-Varsity Press: Leicester UK, p.67).
"Paul designated both God the Father and the Lord Jesus as dispensers of grace and peace to the Church. ... Such a connection is possible only if God and the Lord reside at the same level in Paul's thought ... [it] indicates a functional identity between the Father and the Lord.":
"God, the Father, and the Lord. Jesus Christ Paul's letters generally followed the literary patterns of that day. ... his typical salutation read: `Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ' ... Paul designated both God the Father and the Lord Jesus as dispensers of grace and peace to the Church. ... Such a connection is possible only if God and the Lord reside at the same level in Paul's thought ...The phrase `God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ,' present in Paul's salutations, thanksgivings, and other doxological passages, indicates a functional identity between the Father and the Lord. They are jointly the source of grace and peace. Praise, thanksgiving, and blessing belong to them." (Capes, D.B. , 1992, "Old Testament Yahweh Texts in Paul's Christology," J.C.B. Mohr: Tübingen, Germany, pp.62-64, 68. Emphasis original).
Gifts: Grace is given to Christians "according to the measure of the gift of Christ." (Eph 4:7). When Jesus "ascended on high he led a host of captives, and he gave gifts to men ... And he gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the shepherds and teachers" (Eph 4:8,11).
Forgiveness. Christians are to "Be ... forgiving one another, as God in Christ forgave you." (Eph 4:32):
"Paul is so much in the habit of thinking of the Father and the Son as intimately related that he ascribes many gifts and graces indifferently to either":
"Paul is so much in the habit of thinking of the Father and the Son as intimately related that he ascribes many gifts and graces indifferently to either. Thus he can speak of the gospel as the gospel of God (Rom, 1:1), and a few verses later as the gospel of Christ (Rom. 2:16). The two are so close that it doesn't matter which name is used. Nor is this an isolated instance. Forgiveness is from God (Col. 2:13), or from Christ (Col. 3:13), or from God for Christ's sake (Eph. 4:32)." (Morris, 1974, p.68).
Rewards. Christians are to know that "whatever good anyone does, this he will receive back from the Lord". (Eph 6:8).
6. JESUS RECEIVES HONOUR AND WORSHIP DUE TO JEHOVAH
Faith. The Ephesian Christians are commended by Paul for their "faith in the Lord Jesus" (Eph 1:15).
King. God's kingdom is Christ's kingdom, i.e. it is "the kingdom of Christ and God" (Eph 5:5):
"EPHESIANS 5:5: `For of this you can be sure: No immoral, impure or greedy person-such a man is an idolater-has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.' We learn in this passage that Christ's kingdom is God's kingdom. Again, the Lord is placed in parallel with the heavenly Father. " (Humber, 1997, p.75. Emphasis original).
Singing to. speaking one to another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart to the Lord; (Eph 5:19):
"SING TO THE LORD One of the most interesting aspects of the early church's devotion to Jesus Christ was their practice of singing hymns about him. Although the New Testament does not include a collection of the church's early hymns, we have three lines of evidence from the New Testament for this practice. ... First, at least one passage explicitly directs Christians to sing hymns to Jesus Christ: `Do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery; but be filled with the Spirit, as you sing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs among yourselves, singing and making melody to the Lord in your hearts, giving thanks to God the Father at all times and for everything in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. (Eph. 5:18-20, emphasis added). Paul not only tells Christians to sing songs to the Lord Jesus, but he also urges them to sing to the Lord in their `hearts:' In other words, song and music in honor of Jesus are to be such a part of our lives that we find ourselves humming such hymns to ourselves or hearing them in our minds as we go about our daily routines. For Jews steeped in the faith of the Old Testament, to `sing to the Lord' meant to sing to Yahweh, the Lord God (
Exod. 15:21; Judg. 5:3; 1 Chron. 16:23; Pss. 7:17; 9:11; 92:1; 95:1; 96:2; 104:33; Isa. 42:10). Yet, in context, Paul is speaking of singing to the Lord Jesus. Verse 20 refers to him as `our Lord Jesus Christ,' and the whole passage follows a Trinitarian pattern: `be filled with the Spirit ... singing and making melody to the Lord in your hearts ... giving thanks to God the Father' (vv. 18-20).' Paul again calls Jesus `the Lord' in verse 22. So Ephesians 5 testifies to the fact that, less than thirty years after Jesus' death and resurrection, singing to Christ-as `the Lord' was an expected, uncontroversial part of the Christian life." (Bowman & Komoszewski, 2007, pp.55-56. Emphasis original).
Praying to. Christians are to be "giving thanks always and for everything to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Eph 5:20).
Reverence for. We are to be "submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ" (Eph 5:21).
Submission to. The "church submits to Christ" (Eph 5:24).
7. OBJECTIONS TO JESUS BEING JEHOVAH
The Father is Jesus' God. "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ..." (Eph 1:3 the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory ..." (Eph 1:17). cf. Rom 15:6; 2Cor 1:3; 11:31; 1Pet 1:3 and Mt 27:46; Mk 15:34; Jn 20:17; Rev 3:2,12.
There is no valid objection: "The title `God of our Lord Jesus Christ' places the emphasis on Christ's human nature, and `Father of our Lord Jesus Christ' calls attention to the Son's divine nature":
"[Rom 15:6] The expression `The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ' (cf. II Cor. 1:3; 11:31; Eph. 1:3; I Peter 1:3) should present no difficulty. The title `God of our Lord Jesus Christ' places the emphasis on Christ's human nature, and `Father of our Lord Jesus Christ' calls attention to the Son's divine nature, for not nativistic but trinitarian sonship is referred to here, a kind of sonship in which Christ, by whatever name he is called, is placed on a par with the Father and the Spirit. ... See also Matt. 27:46 (= Mark 15:34) and John 20:17." (Hendriksen, W., "Romans: Volume 2: Chapters 9-16," New Testament Commentary, The Banner of Truth Trust: Edinburgh, 1980, pp.473-474. Emphasis original).
"... it is evident that if the title `God of our Lord Jesus Christ' places emphasis on Christ's human nature, that of `Father of our Lord Jesus Christ calls attention to the Son's divine nature":
"[Eph 1:3] Since Jesus was and is not only God but also man, and since he himself addressed the first Person of the Trinity as `my God' (Matt. 27:46), it is evident that the full title `the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ' is justified. As to the term `Father,' it is evident that if the title `God of our Lord Jesus Christ' places emphasis on Christ's human nature, that of `Father of our Lord Jesus Christ calls attention to the Son's divine nature, for not nativistic but trinitarian sonship is referred to in this thoroughly trinitarian epistle, in which the Beloved, by whatever name he is called, is constantly placed on a par with, and mentioned in one breath with, the Father and the Spirit (2:18; 3:14-17; 4:4-6; 5:18-20)." (Hendriksen, W., 1972, "Ephesians," Banner of Truth: Edinburgh UK, 1967, British edition, pp.72-73. Emphasis original)."The phrase `God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ'" expresses "the double filiation of the Son, His trinitarian Sonship and that of His humanity as the Sent of the Father."
"[Eph 1:3] The phrase `God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ' seems to express the double filiation of the Son, His trinitarian Sonship and that of His humanity as the Sent of the Father." (Simpson, E.K., 1957. "Commentary on the Epistles of Paul to the Ephesians," Marshall, Morgan & Scott: London, p.24).
"The son of a king may be officially subordinate and yet equal in nature to his father":
"[1Cor 15:27-28] The statement that the Son also himself shall be subject to God has been thought by some to lower the dignity of the Son of God, as well as, possibly, to cast a reflection on his deity. The subjection, however, is not that of the Son as Son, but as the incarnate Son. This, of course, does not involve inequality of essence. The son of a king may be officially subordinate and yet equal in nature to his father ... Paul's point is this: The Son as incarnate Son has all power now (cf. Mt 28:18). When he delivers up the administration of 'the earthly kingdom to the Father, then the triune God will reign as God and no longer through the incarnate Son. Messiahship is a phase of the Son's eternal Sonship ....." (Johnson, S.L., "I Corinthians," in Pfeiffer, C.F. & Harrison, E.F., 1962, eds., "The Wycliffe Bible Commentary," Oliphants: London, Reprinted, 1963, p.1257).
One God and Father. If a Jehovah's Witness claims that because Paul wrote that there is "one God and Father of all" (Eph 4:6) and therefore Jesus cannot be God, then by that same logic, because the preceding verse
Eph 4:5 says there is only "one Lord" (and Jesus many times is called "Lord", including that "Jesus is Lord" - Rom 10:9; 1Cor 12:3; Php 2:11 and that "and there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ 1Cor 8:5-6). ), then Jehovah cannot be Lord! See also my Jesus is Jehovah in 1 Corinthians on 1Cor 8:6.
Therefore, on the basis of the above positive evidence in Ephesians for Jesus being Jehovah and the lack of any valid objection against, then I conclude that Jesus is Jehovah in Ephesians!
My next part #13, in assumed chronological order, would normally be "Jesus is Jehovah in Luke!" But as previously mentioned, this may be the last (at least for a while), of this series "Jesus is Jehovah in the New Testament."